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Advances in Targeting HPV Infection as Potential Alternative Prophylactic Means

1
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
2
Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine (IDM), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
3
Division of Medical Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
4
Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, 5000 Nova Gorica, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marta del Pino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042201
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
Infection by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. The majority of cervical cancer cases occur in low- and middle- income countries (LMIC). Concurrent infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) further increases the risk of HPV infection and exacerbates disease onset and progression. Highly effective prophylactic vaccines do exist to combat HPV infection with the most common oncogenic types, but the accessibility to these in LMIC is severely limited due to cost, difficulties in accessing the target population, cultural issues, and maintenance of a cold chain. Alternative preventive measures against HPV infection that are more accessible and affordable are therefore also needed to control cervical cancer risk. There are several efforts in identifying such alternative prophylactics which target key molecules involved in early HPV infection events. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the initial steps in HPV infection, from host cell-surface engagement to cellular trafficking of the viral genome before arrival in the nucleus. The key molecules that can be potentially targeted are highlighted, and a discussion on their applicability as alternative preventive means against HPV infection, with a focus on LMIC, is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus (HPV); cervical cancer; low- and middle- income countries (LMIC); prophylactic vaccines human papillomavirus (HPV); cervical cancer; low- and middle- income countries (LMIC); prophylactic vaccines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carse, S.; Bergant, M.; Schäfer, G. Advances in Targeting HPV Infection as Potential Alternative Prophylactic Means. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042201

AMA Style

Carse S, Bergant M, Schäfer G. Advances in Targeting HPV Infection as Potential Alternative Prophylactic Means. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042201

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carse, Sinead; Bergant, Martina; Schäfer, Georgia. 2021. "Advances in Targeting HPV Infection as Potential Alternative Prophylactic Means" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 4: 2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042201

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