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Brief Review of Endometriosis and the Role of Trace Elements

Department of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 4, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 4a, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
2nd Department of Gynecology, Lublin Medical University, 20-954 Lublin, Poland
2nd Department of Gynecology, St John’s Center Oncology, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Jagielonian University, Collegium Medicum, 30-688 Kraków, Poland
Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics, Medical University of Lublin, 20-439 Lublin, Poland
Department of Dental Surgery Medical University of Lublin, 20-081 Lublin, Poland
Laboratory of Virtual Man, Medical University of Lublin, 20-439 Lublin, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kanako Hayashi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11098;
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 4 October 2021 / Accepted: 6 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Trace Elements in Diseases)
Endometriosis is a chronic, estrogen-dependent, inflammatory condition that is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Despite the progress in research into the mechanisms leading to the development of endometriosis, its cause has not yet been established. It seems to be possible that the formation of oxidative stress may be one of the main causes of the development of endometriosis. There is much research that studies the potential role of trace elements in the appearance of endometrial-like lesions. Most studies focus on assessing the content of selected trace elements in the blood, urine, or peritoneal fluid in women with endometriosis. Meanwhile, little is known about the content of these elements in endometrial-like implants, which may be helpful in developing the theory of endometriosis. Investigations that are more comprehensive are needed to confirm a hypothesis that some trace elements play a role in the pathomechanism of endometriosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: endometriosis; trace elements; endometrium; oxidative stress endometriosis; trace elements; endometrium; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Osuchowska-Grochowska, I.; Blicharska, E.; Gogacz, M.; Nogalska, A.; Winkler, I.; Szopa, A.; Ekiert, H.; Tymczyna-Borowicz, B.; Rahnama-Hezavah, M.; Grochowski, C. Brief Review of Endometriosis and the Role of Trace Elements. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11098.

AMA Style

Osuchowska-Grochowska I, Blicharska E, Gogacz M, Nogalska A, Winkler I, Szopa A, Ekiert H, Tymczyna-Borowicz B, Rahnama-Hezavah M, Grochowski C. Brief Review of Endometriosis and the Role of Trace Elements. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(20):11098.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Osuchowska-Grochowska, Ida, Eliza Blicharska, Marek Gogacz, Agata Nogalska, Izabela Winkler, Agnieszka Szopa, Halina Ekiert, Barbara Tymczyna-Borowicz, Mansur Rahnama-Hezavah, and Cezary Grochowski. 2021. "Brief Review of Endometriosis and the Role of Trace Elements" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 20: 11098.

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