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Article

The Effect of Surface-Modified Gold Nanorods on the Early Stage of Embryonic Development and Angiogenesis: Insight into the Molecular Pathways

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman 11733, Jordan
2
College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
3
Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
4
Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research Unit, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
5
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexey A. Tinkov and Anatoly Skalny
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011036
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 24 September 2021 / Accepted: 30 September 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Trace Elements in Diseases)
Gold nanorods have been implicated in several biomedical applications. Herein, the effect of two surface-modified gold nanorods on the early stages of embryogenesis and angiogenesis was investigated using avian embryos at three days and their chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) at five days of incubation. We found that gold nanorods (GNR) modified with PEGylated phospholipid moiety show a high mortality rate in embryos after four days of exposure compared to GNR modified with PEGylated cholesterol moiety. Meanwhile, our data revealed that surface modified-GNR significantly inhibit the formation of new blood vessels in the treated CAM model after 48 h of exposure. Moreover, we report that surface-modified GNR significantly deregulate the expression of several genes implicated in cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, cellular energy metabolism, and angiogenesis. On the other hand, our data point out that GNR treatments can modulate the expression patterns of JNK1/2/3, NF-KB/p38, and MAPK, which could be the main molecular pathways of the nanorods in our experimental models. View Full-Text
Keywords: gold nanorods; chick chorioallantoic membrane; angiogenesis; embryogenesis; apoptosis gold nanorods; chick chorioallantoic membrane; angiogenesis; embryogenesis; apoptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahmoud, N.N.; Zakaria, Z.Z.; Kheraldine, H.; Gupta, I.; Vranic, S.; Al-Asmakh, M.; Al Moustafa, A.-E. The Effect of Surface-Modified Gold Nanorods on the Early Stage of Embryonic Development and Angiogenesis: Insight into the Molecular Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11036. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011036

AMA Style

Mahmoud NN, Zakaria ZZ, Kheraldine H, Gupta I, Vranic S, Al-Asmakh M, Al Moustafa A-E. The Effect of Surface-Modified Gold Nanorods on the Early Stage of Embryonic Development and Angiogenesis: Insight into the Molecular Pathways. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(20):11036. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mahmoud, Nouf N., Zain Z. Zakaria, Hadeel Kheraldine, Ishita Gupta, Semir Vranic, Maha Al-Asmakh, and Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa. 2021. "The Effect of Surface-Modified Gold Nanorods on the Early Stage of Embryonic Development and Angiogenesis: Insight into the Molecular Pathways" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 20: 11036. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011036

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