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Article

Blood-Based Immune Profiling Combined with Machine Learning Discriminates Psoriatic Arthritis from Psoriasis Patients

1
Department of Rheumatology, Sint Maartenskliniek, 6524 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Department of Dermatology, Radboud University Medical Center, 6524 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Department of Laboratory Medicine—Medical Immunology, Department of Dermatology, Radboud University Medical Center, 6524 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Center for Molecular and Biomolecular Informatics, Radboud University Medical Center, 6524 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, L-4475 Belvaux, Luxembourg
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College of Computer Science, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810000, China
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Institute for Life Science and Technology, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, 9727 Groningen, The Netherlands
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TenWise BV, 5344 KX Oss, The Netherlands
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Department of Laboratory Medicine, Laboratory for Diagnostics, Radboud University Medical Center, 6524 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally.
Both authors contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Shigaku Ikeda and Naoko Kanda
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 10990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010990
Received: 20 September 2021 / Revised: 4 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
Psoriasis (Pso) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, and up to 30% of Pso patients develop psoriatic arthritis (PsA), which can lead to irreversible joint damage. Early detection of PsA in Pso patients is crucial for timely treatment but difficult for dermatologists to implement. We, therefore, aimed to find disease-specific immune profiles, discriminating Pso from PsA patients, possibly facilitating the correct identification of Pso patients in need of referral to a rheumatology clinic. The phenotypes of peripheral blood immune cells of consecutive Pso and PsA patients were analyzed, and disease-specific immune profiles were identified via a machine learning approach. This approach resulted in a random forest classification model capable of distinguishing PsA from Pso (mean AUC = 0.95). Key PsA-classifying cell subsets selected included increased proportions of differentiated CD4+CD196+CD183-CD194+ and CD4+CD196-CD183-CD194+ T-cells and reduced proportions of CD196+ and CD197+ monocytes, memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets and CD4+ regulatory T-cells. Within PsA, joint scores showed an association with memory CD8+CD45RA-CD197- effector T-cells and CD197+ monocytes. To conclude, through the integration of in-depth flow cytometry and machine learning, we identified an immune cell profile discriminating PsA from Pso. This immune profile may aid in timely diagnosing PsA in Pso. View Full-Text
Keywords: psoriatic arthritis; psoriasis; detection; immune profile; flow cytometry; machine learning psoriatic arthritis; psoriasis; detection; immune profile; flow cytometry; machine learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mulder, M.L.M.; He, X.; van den Reek, J.M.P.A.; Urbano, P.C.M.; Kaffa, C.; Wang, X.; van Cranenbroek, B.; van Rijssen, E.; van den Hoogen, F.H.J.; Joosten, I.; Alkema, W.; de Jong, E.M.G.J.; Smeets, R.L.; Wenink, M.H.; Koenen, H.J.P.M. Blood-Based Immune Profiling Combined with Machine Learning Discriminates Psoriatic Arthritis from Psoriasis Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 10990. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010990

AMA Style

Mulder MLM, He X, van den Reek JMPA, Urbano PCM, Kaffa C, Wang X, van Cranenbroek B, van Rijssen E, van den Hoogen FHJ, Joosten I, Alkema W, de Jong EMGJ, Smeets RL, Wenink MH, Koenen HJPM. Blood-Based Immune Profiling Combined with Machine Learning Discriminates Psoriatic Arthritis from Psoriasis Patients. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(20):10990. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010990

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mulder, Michelle L. M., Xuehui He, Juul M. P. A. van den Reek, Paulo C. M. Urbano, Charlotte Kaffa, Xinhui Wang, Bram van Cranenbroek, Esther van Rijssen, Frank H. J. van den Hoogen, Irma Joosten, Wynand Alkema, Elke M. G. J. de Jong, Ruben L. Smeets, Mark H. Wenink, and Hans J. P. M. Koenen. 2021. "Blood-Based Immune Profiling Combined with Machine Learning Discriminates Psoriatic Arthritis from Psoriasis Patients" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 20: 10990. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010990

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