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Review

Protective and Healing Effects of Ghrelin and Risk of Cancer in the Digestive System

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Grzegórzecka 16 St., 31-531 Kraków, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bunzo Matsuura
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910571
Received: 29 August 2021 / Revised: 24 September 2021 / Accepted: 27 September 2021 / Published: 29 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Hormone: From Molecular Mechanism to Clinical Aspects 2021)
Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the ghrelin receptor, previously known as the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. This hormone is mainly produced by endocrine cells present in the gastric mucosa. The ghrelin-producing cells are also present in other organs of the body, mainly in the digestive system, but in much smaller amount. Ghrelin exhibits a broad spectrum of physiological effects, such as stimulation of growth hormone secretion, gastric secretion, gastrointestinal motility, and food intake, as well as regulation of glucose homeostasis and bone formation, and inhibition of inflammatory processes. This review summarizes the recent findings concerning animal and human data showing protective and therapeutic effects of ghrelin in the gut, and also presents the role of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in these effects. In addition, the current data on the possible influence of ghrelin on the carcinogenesis, its importance in predicting the risk of developing gastrointestinal malignances, as well as the potential usefulness of ghrelin in the treatment of cancer, have been presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: ghrelin; anti-inflammatory effects; pretreatment; protection; healing; risk of cancer; cachexia ghrelin; anti-inflammatory effects; pretreatment; protection; healing; risk of cancer; cachexia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ginter, G.; Ceranowicz, P.; Warzecha, Z. Protective and Healing Effects of Ghrelin and Risk of Cancer in the Digestive System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 10571. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910571

AMA Style

Ginter G, Ceranowicz P, Warzecha Z. Protective and Healing Effects of Ghrelin and Risk of Cancer in the Digestive System. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(19):10571. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910571

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ginter, Grzegorz, Piotr Ceranowicz, and Zygmunt Warzecha. 2021. "Protective and Healing Effects of Ghrelin and Risk of Cancer in the Digestive System" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 19: 10571. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910571

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