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Review

An Overview of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Its Applications in the Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms

1
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju 54874, Korea
2
Institute for Future Environmental Ecology Co., Ltd., Jeonju 54883, Korea
3
Department of Measurements and Process Control, Szent István University, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary
4
Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ian A. Nicholls and Vladimir N. Uversky
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189940
Received: 24 August 2021 / Revised: 9 September 2021 / Accepted: 11 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Molecular Biophysics)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a more popular approach for quantitative and qualitative analysis of feeds, foods and medicine in conjunction with an arsenal of chemometric tools. This was the foundation for the increased importance of NIRS in other fields, like genetics and transgenic monitoring. A considerable number of studies have utilized NIRS for the effective identification and discrimination of plants and foods, especially for the identification of genetically modified crops. Few previous reviews have elaborated on the applications of NIRS in agriculture and food, but there is no comprehensive review that compares the use of NIRS in the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This is particularly important because, in comparison to previous technologies such as PCR and ELISA, NIRS offers several advantages, such as speed (eliminating time-consuming procedures), non-destructive/non-invasive analysis, and is inexpensive in terms of cost and maintenance. More importantly, this technique has the potential to measure multiple quality components in GMOs with reliable accuracy. In this review, we brief about the fundamentals and versatile applications of NIRS for the effective identification of GMOs in the agricultural and food systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemometric analysis; deep learning; environmental risk; genetically modified organisms; near-infrared; spectroscopy chemometric analysis; deep learning; environmental risk; genetically modified organisms; near-infrared; spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sohn, S.-I.; Pandian, S.; Oh, Y.-J.; Zaukuu, J.-L.Z.; Kang, H.-J.; Ryu, T.-H.; Cho, W.-S.; Cho, Y.-S.; Shin, E.-K.; Cho, B.-K. An Overview of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Its Applications in the Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189940

AMA Style

Sohn S-I, Pandian S, Oh Y-J, Zaukuu J-LZ, Kang H-J, Ryu T-H, Cho W-S, Cho Y-S, Shin E-K, Cho B-K. An Overview of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Its Applications in the Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(18):9940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189940

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sohn, Soo-In, Subramani Pandian, Young-Ju Oh, John-Lewis Z. Zaukuu, Hyeon-Jung Kang, Tae-Hun Ryu, Woo-Suk Cho, Youn-Sung Cho, Eun-Kyoung Shin, and Byoung-Kwan Cho. 2021. "An Overview of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Its Applications in the Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 18: 9940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189940

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