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Drosophila as a Model for Infectious Diseases
Review

Human Hazard Assessment Using Drosophila Wing Spot Test as an Alternative In Vivo Model for Genotoxicity Testing—A Review

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2
Food and Nutrition Academic and Research Cluster, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Masamitsu Yamaguchi and Shinya Yamamoto
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189932
Received: 26 August 2021 / Revised: 12 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Drosophila in Human Disease Research 2.0)
Genomic instability, one of cancer’s hallmarks, is induced by genotoxins from endogenous and exogenous sources, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), diet, and environmental pollutants. A sensitive in vivo genotoxicity test is required for the identification of human hazards to reduce the potential health risk. The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) or wing spot test is a genotoxicity assay involving Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) as a classical, alternative human model. This review describes the principle of the SMART assay in conjunction with its advantages and disadvantages and discusses applications of the assay covering all segments of health-related industries, including food, dietary supplements, drug industries, pesticides, and herbicides, as well as nanoparticles. Chemopreventive strategies are outlined as a global health trend for the anti-genotoxicity of interesting herbal extract compounds determined by SMART assay. The successful application of Drosophila for high-throughput screening of mutagens is also discussed as a future perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster; carcinogens; genotoxicity testing; human hazard assessment; mutagens; wing spot test Drosophila melanogaster; carcinogens; genotoxicity testing; human hazard assessment; mutagens; wing spot test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pitchakarn, P.; Inthachat, W.; Karinchai, J.; Temviriyanukul, P. Human Hazard Assessment Using Drosophila Wing Spot Test as an Alternative In Vivo Model for Genotoxicity Testing—A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9932. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189932

AMA Style

Pitchakarn P, Inthachat W, Karinchai J, Temviriyanukul P. Human Hazard Assessment Using Drosophila Wing Spot Test as an Alternative In Vivo Model for Genotoxicity Testing—A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(18):9932. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189932

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pitchakarn, Pornsiri, Woorawee Inthachat, Jirarat Karinchai, and Piya Temviriyanukul. 2021. "Human Hazard Assessment Using Drosophila Wing Spot Test as an Alternative In Vivo Model for Genotoxicity Testing—A Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 18: 9932. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189932

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