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Review

Human Milk Metabolic Hormones: Analytical Methods and Current Understanding

1
School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
2
Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 54142, Saudi Arabia
3
Population Health, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute (MCRI), Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan Roa Rivas
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168708
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 9 August 2021 / Published: 13 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptin–Metabolic Programming and Its Endocrine Signals)
Human milk (HM) contains a wide array of peptide hormones including leptin and adiponectin, which are involved in the regulation of infant growth and development. These essential hormones might play an important role in the regulation of metabolic reprogramming of the new-born infant. However, HM hormone studies are sparse and heterogeneous in regard to the study design, sample collection, preparation and analysis methods. This review discussed the limitations of HM hormone analysis highlighting the gaps in pre-analytical and analytical stages. The methods used to quantify HM metabolic hormones (leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, insulin, obestatin, resistin and apelin) can be classified as immunoassay, immunosensor and chromatography. Immunoassay methods (ELISA and RIA) have been predominantly used in the measurement of these HM hormones. The relative validity parameters of HM hormones analysis are often overlooked in publications, despite the complexity and differences of HM matrix when compared to that of plasma and urine. Therefore, appropriate reports of validation parameters of methodology and instrumentation are crucial for accurate measurements and therefore better understanding of the HM metabolic hormones and their influences on infant outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: leptin; adiponectin; ghrelin; insulin; obestatin; resistin; apelin; human milk; analytical methods; metabolic hormones leptin; adiponectin; ghrelin; insulin; obestatin; resistin; apelin; human milk; analytical methods; metabolic hormones
MDPI and ACS Style

Suwaydi, M.A.; Gridneva, Z.; Perrella, S.L.; Wlodek, M.E.; Lai, C.T.; Geddes, D.T. Human Milk Metabolic Hormones: Analytical Methods and Current Understanding. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8708. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168708

AMA Style

Suwaydi MA, Gridneva Z, Perrella SL, Wlodek ME, Lai CT, Geddes DT. Human Milk Metabolic Hormones: Analytical Methods and Current Understanding. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16):8708. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168708

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suwaydi, Majed A., Zoya Gridneva, Sharon L. Perrella, Mary E. Wlodek, Ching T. Lai, and Donna T. Geddes 2021. "Human Milk Metabolic Hormones: Analytical Methods and Current Understanding" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 16: 8708. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168708

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