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Review

Problems of Pathogenesis and Pathogenetic Therapy of COVID-19 from the Perspective of the General Theory of Pathological Systems (General Pathological Processes)

1
Institute of Immunology and Physiology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 620049 Ekaterinburg, Russia
2
School of Medical Biology, South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
3
Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 200092, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147582
Received: 2 June 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 12 July 2021 / Published: 15 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Inflammatory Reactions in Health and Disease)
The COVID-19 pandemic examines not only the state of actual health care but also the state of fundamental medicine in various countries. Pro-inflammatory processes extend far beyond the classical concepts of inflammation. They manifest themselves in a variety of ways, beginning with extreme physiology, then allostasis at low-grade inflammation, and finally the shockogenic phenomenon of “inflammatory systemic microcirculation”. The pathogenetic core of critical situations, including COVID-19, is this phenomenon. Microcirculatory abnormalities, on the other hand, lie at the heart of a specific type of general pathological process known as systemic inflammation (SI). Systemic inflammatory response, cytokine release, cytokine storm, and thrombo-inflammatory syndrome are all terms that refer to different aspects of SI. As a result, the metabolic syndrome model does not adequately reflect the pathophysiology of persistent low-grade systemic inflammation (ChSLGI). Diseases associated with ChSLGI, on the other hand, are risk factors for a severe COVID-19 course. The review examines the role of hypoxia, metabolic dysfunction, scavenger receptors, and pattern-recognition receptors, as well as the processes of the hemophagocytic syndrome, in the systemic alteration and development of SI in COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: ARDS; cytokine storm; general pathological process; low-grade inflammation; microcirculation; MODS; receptor scavengers; SARS-CoV-2; systemic inflammation ARDS; cytokine storm; general pathological process; low-grade inflammation; microcirculation; MODS; receptor scavengers; SARS-CoV-2; systemic inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gusev, E.; Sarapultsev, A.; Hu, D.; Chereshnev, V. Problems of Pathogenesis and Pathogenetic Therapy of COVID-19 from the Perspective of the General Theory of Pathological Systems (General Pathological Processes). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7582. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147582

AMA Style

Gusev E, Sarapultsev A, Hu D, Chereshnev V. Problems of Pathogenesis and Pathogenetic Therapy of COVID-19 from the Perspective of the General Theory of Pathological Systems (General Pathological Processes). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(14):7582. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147582

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gusev, Evgenii, Alexey Sarapultsev, Desheng Hu, and Valeriy Chereshnev. 2021. "Problems of Pathogenesis and Pathogenetic Therapy of COVID-19 from the Perspective of the General Theory of Pathological Systems (General Pathological Processes)" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 14: 7582. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147582

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