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Review

The Potential Role of FREM1 and Its Isoform TILRR in HIV-1 Acquisition through Mediating Inflammation

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada
2
JC Wilt Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada
3
National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada
4
Department of Biochemistry & Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada
5
Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97006, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
In memoriam.
Academic Editor: Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 7825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157825
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 13 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Inflammatory Reactions in Health and Disease)
FREM1 (Fras-related extracellular matrix 1) and its splice variant TILRR (Toll-like interleukin-1 receptor regulator) have been identified as integral components of innate immune systems. The potential involvement of FREM1 in HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus 1) acquisition was suggested by a genome-wide SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) analysis of HIV-1 resistant and susceptible sex workers enrolled in the Pumwani sex worker cohort (PSWC) in Nairobi, Kenya. The studies showed that the minor allele of a FREM1 SNP rs1552896 is highly enriched in the HIV-1 resistant female sex workers. Subsequent studies showed that FREM1 mRNA is highly expressed in tissues relevant to mucosal HIV-1 infection, including cervical epithelial tissues, and TILRR is a major modulator of many genes in the NF-κB signal transduction pathway. In this article, we review the role of FREM1 and TILRR in modulating inflammatory responses and inflammation, and how their influence on inflammatory responses of cervicovaginal tissue could enhance the risk of vaginal HIV-1 acquisition. View Full-Text
Keywords: FREM1; TILRR; inflammation; HIV-1 acquisition FREM1; TILRR; inflammation; HIV-1 acquisition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kashem, M.A.; Li, H.; Liu, L.R.; Liang, B.; Omange, R.W.; Plummer, F.A.; Luo, M. The Potential Role of FREM1 and Its Isoform TILRR in HIV-1 Acquisition through Mediating Inflammation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7825. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157825

AMA Style

Kashem MA, Li H, Liu LR, Liang B, Omange RW, Plummer FA, Luo M. The Potential Role of FREM1 and Its Isoform TILRR in HIV-1 Acquisition through Mediating Inflammation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(15):7825. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157825

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kashem, Mohammad Abul, Hongzhao Li, Lewis Ruxi Liu, Binhua Liang, Robert Were Omange, Francis A. Plummer, and Ma Luo. 2021. "The Potential Role of FREM1 and Its Isoform TILRR in HIV-1 Acquisition through Mediating Inflammation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 15: 7825. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157825

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