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Review

Role of Insulin in Health and Disease: An Update

1
Department of Animal Science & Technology and BET Research Institute, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea
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ABEx Bio-Research Center, East Azampur, Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh
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Department of Pathology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
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Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Woman’s University, Seoul 03760, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shin Takasawa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126403
Received: 11 May 2021 / Revised: 12 June 2021 / Accepted: 14 June 2021 / Published: 15 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Insulin is a polypeptide hormone mainly secreted by β cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. The hormone potentially coordinates with glucagon to modulate blood glucose levels; insulin acts via an anabolic pathway, while glucagon performs catabolic functions. Insulin regulates glucose levels in the bloodstream and induces glucose storage in the liver, muscles, and adipose tissue, resulting in overall weight gain. The modulation of a wide range of physiological processes by insulin makes its synthesis and levels critical in the onset and progression of several chronic diseases. Although clinical and basic research has made significant progress in understanding the role of insulin in several pathophysiological processes, many aspects of these functions have yet to be elucidated. This review provides an update on insulin secretion and regulation, and its physiological roles and functions in different organs and cells, and implications to overall health. We cast light on recent advances in insulin-signaling targeted therapies, the protective effects of insulin signaling activators against disease, and recommendations and directions for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: insulin; health; disease; homeostasis; regulation; glucose insulin; health; disease; homeostasis; regulation; glucose
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahman, M.S.; Hossain, K.S.; Das, S.; Kundu, S.; Adegoke, E.O.; Rahman, M.A.; Hannan, M.A.; Uddin, M.J.; Pang, M.-G. Role of Insulin in Health and Disease: An Update. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6403. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126403

AMA Style

Rahman MS, Hossain KS, Das S, Kundu S, Adegoke EO, Rahman MA, Hannan MA, Uddin MJ, Pang M-G. Role of Insulin in Health and Disease: An Update. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(12):6403. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126403

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahman, Md S., Khandkar S. Hossain, Sharnali Das, Sushmita Kundu, Elikanah O. Adegoke, Md. A. Rahman, Md. A. Hannan, Md J. Uddin, and Myung-Geol Pang. 2021. "Role of Insulin in Health and Disease: An Update" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 12: 6403. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126403

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