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Review

Rhizobial Exopolysaccharides: Genetic Regulation of Their Synthesis and Relevance in Symbiosis with Legumes

1
Department of Microbiology, University of Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 Seville, Spain
2
Department of Industrial and Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shawn A. Christensen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126233
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 3 June 2021 / Accepted: 6 June 2021 / Published: 9 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions)
Rhizobia are soil proteobacteria able to engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with legumes that involves the rhizobial infection of roots and the bacterial invasion of new organs formed by the plant in response to the presence of appropriate bacterial partners. This interaction relies on a complex molecular dialogue between both symbionts. Bacterial N-acetyl-glucosamine oligomers called Nod factors are indispensable in most cases for early steps of the symbiotic interaction. In addition, different rhizobial surface polysaccharides, such as exopolysaccharides (EPS), may also be symbiotically relevant. EPS are acidic polysaccharides located out of the cell with little or no cell association that carry out important roles both in free-life and in symbiosis. EPS production is very complexly modulated and, frequently, co-regulated with Nod factors, but the type of co-regulation varies depending on the rhizobial strain. Many studies point out a signalling role for EPS-derived oligosaccharides in root infection and nodule invasion but, in certain symbiotic couples, EPS can be dispensable for a successful interaction. In summary, the complex regulation of the production of rhizobial EPS varies in different rhizobia, and the relevance of this polysaccharide in symbiosis with legumes depends on the specific interacting couple. View Full-Text
Keywords: rhizobia; legume; rhizobium–legume symbiosis; exopolysaccharide synthesis; quorum sensing (QS); nodulation; nod regulon; flavonoids; RosR/MucR; SyrM rhizobia; legume; rhizobium–legume symbiosis; exopolysaccharide synthesis; quorum sensing (QS); nodulation; nod regulon; flavonoids; RosR/MucR; SyrM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Acosta-Jurado, S.; Fuentes-Romero, F.; Ruiz-Sainz, J.-E.; Janczarek, M.; Vinardell, J.-M. Rhizobial Exopolysaccharides: Genetic Regulation of Their Synthesis and Relevance in Symbiosis with Legumes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6233. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126233

AMA Style

Acosta-Jurado S, Fuentes-Romero F, Ruiz-Sainz J-E, Janczarek M, Vinardell J-M. Rhizobial Exopolysaccharides: Genetic Regulation of Their Synthesis and Relevance in Symbiosis with Legumes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(12):6233. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126233

Chicago/Turabian Style

Acosta-Jurado, Sebastián, Francisco Fuentes-Romero, Jose-Enrique Ruiz-Sainz, Monika Janczarek, and José-María Vinardell. 2021. "Rhizobial Exopolysaccharides: Genetic Regulation of Their Synthesis and Relevance in Symbiosis with Legumes" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 12: 6233. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126233

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