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Review

Advances and Perspectives in Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering of Cannabis

1
Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
3
Département de Phytologie, Université Laval, Québec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robert Hasterok and Alexander Betekhtin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115671
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 19 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell and Organism Development 2.0)
For a long time, Cannabis sativa has been used for therapeutic and industrial purposes. Due to its increasing demand in medicine, recreation, and industry, there is a dire need to apply new biotechnological tools to introduce new genotypes with desirable traits and enhanced secondary metabolite production. Micropropagation, conservation, cell suspension culture, hairy root culture, polyploidy manipulation, and Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation have been studied and used in cannabis. However, some obstacles such as the low rate of transgenic plant regeneration and low efficiency of secondary metabolite production in hairy root culture and cell suspension culture have restricted the application of these approaches in cannabis. In the current review, in vitro culture and genetic engineering methods in cannabis along with other promising techniques such as morphogenic genes, new computational approaches, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), CRISPR/Cas9-equipped Agrobacterium-mediated genome editing, and hairy root culture, that can help improve gene transformation and plant regeneration, as well as enhance secondary metabolite production, have been highlighted and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: haploid production; hemp; gene transformation; genome editing; in vitro culture; marijuana; morphogenic genes; organogenesis; somatic embryogenesis; polyploidy haploid production; hemp; gene transformation; genome editing; in vitro culture; marijuana; morphogenic genes; organogenesis; somatic embryogenesis; polyploidy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hesami, M.; Baiton, A.; Alizadeh, M.; Pepe, M.; Torkamaneh, D.; Jones, A.M.P. Advances and Perspectives in Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering of Cannabis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5671. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115671

AMA Style

Hesami M, Baiton A, Alizadeh M, Pepe M, Torkamaneh D, Jones AMP. Advances and Perspectives in Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering of Cannabis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5671. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115671

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hesami, Mohsen, Austin Baiton, Milad Alizadeh, Marco Pepe, Davoud Torkamaneh, and Andrew M.P. Jones 2021. "Advances and Perspectives in Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering of Cannabis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5671. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115671

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