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Review

Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Counteracting Oxidative Stress—Related Neurodegeneration

1
School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III da Varano, 62032 Camerino, Italy
2
Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 41124 Modena, Italy
3
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum—University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna, Italy
4
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum—University of Bologna, Corso d’Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093299
Received: 7 April 2020 / Revised: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 4 May 2020 / Published: 7 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neuroscience)
Neurodegenerative diseases include a variety of pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and so forth, which share many common characteristics such as oxidative stress, glycation, abnormal protein deposition, inflammation, and progressive neuronal loss. The last century has witnessed significant research to identify mechanisms and risk factors contributing to the complex etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as genetic, vascular/metabolic, and lifestyle-related factors, which often co-occur and interact with each other. Apart from several environmental or genetic factors, in recent years, much evidence hints that impairment in redox homeostasis is a common mechanism in different neurological diseases. However, from a pharmacological perspective, oxidative stress is a difficult target, and antioxidants, the only strategy used so far, have been ineffective or even provoked side effects. In this review, we report an analysis of the recent literature on the role of oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases as well as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, retinal ganglion cells, and ataxia. Moreover, the contribution of stem cells has been widely explored, looking at their potential in neuronal differentiation and reporting findings on their application in fighting oxidative stress in different neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the exposure to mesenchymal stem cells or their secretome can be considered as a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance antioxidant capacity and neurotrophin expression while inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, which are common aspects of neurodegenerative pathologies. Further studies are needed to identify a tailored approach for each neurodegenerative disease in order to design more effective stem cell therapeutic strategies to prevent a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; oxidative stress; neurodegeneration; secretome mesenchymal stem cells; oxidative stress; neurodegeneration; secretome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Angeloni, C.; Gatti, M.; Prata, C.; Hrelia, S.; Maraldi, T. Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Counteracting Oxidative Stress—Related Neurodegeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3299. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093299

AMA Style

Angeloni C, Gatti M, Prata C, Hrelia S, Maraldi T. Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Counteracting Oxidative Stress—Related Neurodegeneration. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(9):3299. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093299

Chicago/Turabian Style

Angeloni, Cristina, Martina Gatti, Cecilia Prata, Silvana Hrelia, and Tullia Maraldi. 2020. "Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Counteracting Oxidative Stress—Related Neurodegeneration" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 9: 3299. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093299

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