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Colorectal Adenomas—Genetics and Searching for New Molecular Screening Biomarkers

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Department of Molecular Biology of Cancer, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Videnska 1083, 14200 Prague, Czech Republic
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Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Albertov 4, 12800 Prague, Czech Republic
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Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Videnska 1958/9, 14021 Prague, Czech Republic
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Biomedical Centre, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Alej Svobody 76, 32300 Pilsen, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093260
Received: 25 April 2020 / Revised: 1 May 2020 / Accepted: 2 May 2020 / Published: 5 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Translational Research on Colorectal Cancer 2.0)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignant disease with an incidence of over 1.8 million new cases per year worldwide. CRC outcome is closely related to the respective stage of CRC and is more favorable at less advanced stages. Detection of early colorectal adenomas is the key to survival. In spite of implemented screening programs showing efficiency in the detection of early precancerous lesions and CRC in asymptomatic patients, a significant number of patients are still diagnosed in advanced stages. Research on CRC accomplished during the last decade has improved our understanding of the etiology and development of colorectal adenomas and revealed weaknesses in the general approach to their detection and elimination. Recent studies seek to find a reliable non-invasive biomarker detectable even in the blood. New candidate biomarkers could be selected on the basis of so-called liquid biopsy, such as long non-coding RNA, microRNA, circulating cell-free DNA, circulating tumor cells, and inflammatory factors released from the adenoma into circulation. In this work, we focused on both genetic and epigenetic changes associated with the development of colorectal adenomas into colorectal carcinoma and we also discuss new possible biomarkers that are detectable even in adenomas prior to cancer development. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal adenoma; colorectal cancer; biomarkers; early detection colorectal adenoma; colorectal cancer; biomarkers; early detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siskova, A.; Cervena, K.; Kral, J.; Hucl, T.; Vodicka, P.; Vymetalkova, V. Colorectal Adenomas—Genetics and Searching for New Molecular Screening Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3260.

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