Transcription factor Prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1) is continuously expressed in the lymphatic endothelial cells, playing an essential role in their differentiation. Many reports have shown that PROX1 is implicated in cancer development and acts as an oncoprotein or suppressor in a tissue-dependent manner. Additionally, the PROX1 expression in many types of tumors has prognostic significance and is associated with patient outcomes. In our previous experimental studies, we showed that PROX1 is present in the thyroid cancer (THC) cells of different origins and has a high impact on follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) phenotypes, regulating migration, invasion, focal adhesion, cytoskeleton reorganization, and angiogenesis. Herein, we discuss the PROX1 transcript and protein structures, the expression pattern of PROX1 in THC specimens, and its epigenetic regulation. Next, we emphasize the biological processes and genes regulated by PROX1 in CGTH-W-1 cells, derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Finally, we discuss the interaction of PROX1 with other lymphatic factors. In our review, we aimed to highlight the importance of vascular molecules in cancer development and provide an update on the functionality of PROX1 in THC biology regulation.
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