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Open AccessArticle

Differences in Gene Expression Profile of Primary Tumors in Metastatic and Non-Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma—Do They Exist?

1
Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department; Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology Gliwice Branch, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland
2
Department of Genetic and Molecular Diagnostics of Cancer, Maria Sklodowska, Curie National Research Institute of Oncology Gliwice Branch, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland
3
Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
4
Tumor Pathology Department; Maria Sklodowska, Curie National Research Institute of Oncology Gliwice Branch, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland
5
The Oncologic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic; Maria Sklodowska, Curie National Research Institute of Oncology Gliwice Branch, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland
6
Breast Unit; Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology Gliwice Branch, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both senior authors equally contributed to that study.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4629; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134629
Received: 17 May 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 26 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Molecular Biology of Thyroid Disorders 2.0)
Molecular mechanisms of distant metastases (M1) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) are poorly understood. We attempted to analyze the gene expression profile in PTC primary tumors to seek the genes associated with M1 status and characterize their molecular function. One hundred and twenty-three patients, including 36 M1 cases, were subjected to transcriptome oligonucleotide microarray analyses: (set A—U133, set B—HG 1.0 ST) at transcript and gene group level (limma, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA)). An additional independent set of 63 PTCs, including 9 M1 cases, was used to validate results by qPCR. The analysis on dataset A detected eleven transcripts showing significant differences in expression between metastatic and non-metastatic PTC. These genes were validated on microarray dataset B. The differential expression was positively confirmed for only two genes: IGFBP3, (most significant) and ECM1. However, when analyzed on an independent dataset by qPCR, the IGFBP3 gene showed no differences in expression. Gene group analysis showed differences mainly among immune-related transcripts, indicating the potential influence of tumor immune infiltration or signal within the primary tumor. The differences in gene expression profile between metastatic and non-metastatic PTC, if they exist, are subtle and potentially detectable only in large datasets. View Full-Text
Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer; distant metastases; gene expression profile; microarray papillary thyroid cancer; distant metastases; gene expression profile; microarray
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Szpak-Ulczok, S.; Pfeifer, A.; Rusinek, D.; Oczko-Wojciechowska, M.; Kowalska, M.; Tyszkiewicz, T.; Cieslicka, M.; Handkiewicz-Junak, D.; Fujarewicz, K.; Lange, D.; Chmielik, E.; Zembala-Nozynska, E.; Student, S.; Kotecka-Blicharz, A.; Kluczewska-Galka, A.; Jarzab, B.; Czarniecka, A.; Jarzab, M.; Krajewska, J. Differences in Gene Expression Profile of Primary Tumors in Metastatic and Non-Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma—Do They Exist? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4629.

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