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Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals?

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Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Neurosciences Institute, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación (CIAL) (UAM-CSIC), C/Nicolás Cabrera, 9, Campus de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
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High Performance Research Group in Physiopathology and Pharmacology of the Digestive System NeuGut-URJC, Department of Basic Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (URJC), Campus de Alcorcón, Avda. de Atenas s/n, 28022 Madrid, Spain
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Unidad Asociada I+D+i del Instituto de Química Médica (IQM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093067
Received: 24 March 2020 / Revised: 21 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 26 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Nutraceuticals in Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
Cannabis sativa is an aromatic annual flowering plant with several botanical varieties, used for different purposes, like the production of fibers, the production of oil from the seeds, and especially for recreational or medical purposes. Phytocannabinoids (terpenophenolic compounds derived from the plant), include the well-known psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and many non-psychoactive cannabinoids, like cannabidiol. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises of endocannabinoid ligands, enzymes for synthesis and degradation of such ligands, and receptors. This system is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract, where phytocannabinoids exert potent effects, particularly under pathological (i.e., inflammatory) conditions. Herein, we will first look at the hemp plant as a possible source of new functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals that might be eventually useful to treat or even prevent gastrointestinal conditions. Subsequently, we will briefly describe the ECS and the general pharmacology of phytocannabinoids. Finally, we will revise the available data showing that non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol, may be useful to treat different disorders and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. With the increasing interest in the development of functional foods for a healthy life, the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids are hoped to find a place as nutraceuticals and food ingredients also for a healthy gastrointestinal tract function. View Full-Text
Keywords: cannabidiol; cannabinoids; inflammatory bowel disease; irritable bowel syndrome; gastrointestinal; non-psychoactive cannabinoids; nutraceutical; psychoactive cannabinoids; visceral pain cannabidiol; cannabinoids; inflammatory bowel disease; irritable bowel syndrome; gastrointestinal; non-psychoactive cannabinoids; nutraceutical; psychoactive cannabinoids; visceral pain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez, V.; Iriondo De-Hond, A.; Borrelli, F.; Capasso, R.; del Castillo, M.D.; Abalo, R. Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3067.

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