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Ankyrin Repeat and Kinase Domain Containing 1 Gene, and Addiction Vulnerability

Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Europea Madrid, Villaviciosa de Odón, 28670 Madrid, Spain
Departamento de Medicina Legal, Psiquiatría y Patología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Servicio de Psiquiatría, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Av. de Córdoba s/n, 28041 Madrid, Spain
Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Molecular Medicine - IPER, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, 08950 Barcelona, Spain
CIBER de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2516;
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 1 April 2020 / Accepted: 2 April 2020 / Published: 4 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanistic Effects of Human Variants Associated with Addiction)
The TaqIA single nucleotide variant (SNV) has been tested for association with addictions in a huge number of studies. TaqIA is located in the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 gene (ANKK1) that codes for a receptor interacting protein kinase. ANKK1 maps on the NTAD cluster along with the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), the tetratricopeptide repeat domain 12 (TTC12) and the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) genes. The four genes have been associated with addictions, although TTC12 and ANKK1 showed the strongest associations. In silico and in vitro studies revealed that ANKK1 is functionally related to the dopaminergic system, in particular with DRD2. In antisocial alcoholism, epistasis between ANKK1 TaqIA and DRD2 C957T SNVs has been described. This clinical finding has been supported by the study of ANKK1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of alcoholic patients and controls. Regarding the ANKK1 protein, there is direct evidence of its location in adult and developing central nervous system. Together, these findings of the ANKK1 gene and its protein suggest that the TaqIA SNV is a marker of brain differences, both in structure and in dopaminergic function, that increase individual risk to addiction development. View Full-Text
Keywords: ANKK1; TaqIA; DRD2; addictions; dopamine; neurodevelopment ANKK1; TaqIA; DRD2; addictions; dopamine; neurodevelopment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koeneke, A.; Ponce, G.; Troya-Balseca, J.; Palomo, T.; Hoenicka, J. Ankyrin Repeat and Kinase Domain Containing 1 Gene, and Addiction Vulnerability. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2516.

AMA Style

Koeneke A, Ponce G, Troya-Balseca J, Palomo T, Hoenicka J. Ankyrin Repeat and Kinase Domain Containing 1 Gene, and Addiction Vulnerability. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(7):2516.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koeneke, Alejandra, Guillermo Ponce, Johanna Troya-Balseca, Tomás Palomo, and Janet Hoenicka. 2020. "Ankyrin Repeat and Kinase Domain Containing 1 Gene, and Addiction Vulnerability" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 7: 2516.

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