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Opioid Addiction, Genetic Susceptibility, and Medical Treatments: A Review
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The Mechanisms Involved in Morphine Addiction: An Overview

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 4a St., 20–093 Lublin, Poland
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174302
Received: 10 July 2019 / Revised: 23 August 2019 / Accepted: 29 August 2019 / Published: 3 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanistic Effects of Human Variants Associated with Addiction)
Opioid use disorder is classified as a chronic recurrent disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which leads to personality disorders, co-morbidities and premature death. It develops as a result of long-term administration of various abused substances, along with morphine. The pharmacological action of morphine is associated with its stimulation of opioid receptors. Opioid receptors are a group of G protein-coupled receptors and activation of these receptors by ligands induces significant molecular changes inside the cell, such as an inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, activation of potassium channels and reductions of calcium conductance. Recent data indicate that other signalling pathways also may be involved in morphine activity. Among these are phospholipase C, mitogen-activated kinases (MAP kinases) or β-arrestin. The present review focuses on major mechanisms which currently are considered as essential in morphine activity and dependence and may be important for further studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: opioid receptors; adenylate cyclase activity; morphine tolerance and withdrawal signs; mesolimbic system; mitogen-activated kinases (MAP kinases); β-arrestin opioid receptors; adenylate cyclase activity; morphine tolerance and withdrawal signs; mesolimbic system; mitogen-activated kinases (MAP kinases); β-arrestin
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Listos, J.; Łupina, M.; Talarek, S.; Mazur, A.; Orzelska-Górka, J.; Kotlińska, J. The Mechanisms Involved in Morphine Addiction: An Overview. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4302.

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