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Astaxanthin n-Octanoic Acid Diester Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Modulates Gut Microbiota in High-Fat and High-Sucrose Diet-Fed Mice

1
Laboratory of Food Science and Human Health, College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
2
Laboratory of Animal Genomics and Improvement, United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service (USDA-ARS), Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
3
Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266235, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062149
Received: 5 March 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 20 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
Astaxanthin n-octanoic acid diester (AOD) is a type of astaxanthin connecting medium-chain fatty acids with a more stable structure. In this study, we examined the role of AOD in ameliorating insulin resistance (IR) induced by a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFD) as well as its effect on modulating gut microbiota in mice, with free astaxanthin (AST) as a comparison. Four groups of male C57BL/6J mice (6 weeks old; n = 10 per group) were fed with a normal control diet (NC), HFD orally administered with AOD, AST (50 mg/kg body weight), or vehicle for 8 weeks. AOD improved glucose tolerance, IR, systematic and intestinal inflammation, and intestinal integrity better than AST. Further, both AOD and AST modulated gut microbiota. A significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides and Coprococcus was found in AOD than in AST, and the predicted pathway of carbohydrate metabolism was significantly impacted by AOD. Overall, AOD may play a role in alleviating IR and inflammation with the modulating effect on microbiota in HFD-fed mice. Our findings could facilitate the development of AOD as a bioactive nutraceutical and more stable alternative to AST. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin n-octanoic acid diester; insulin resistance; inflammation; 16S rRNA; gut microbiota astaxanthin n-octanoic acid diester; insulin resistance; inflammation; 16S rRNA; gut microbiota
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, Y.; Yang, L.; Chin, Y.; Liu, F.; Li, R.W.; Yuan, S.; Xue, C.; Xu, J.; Tang, Q. Astaxanthin n-Octanoic Acid Diester Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Modulates Gut Microbiota in High-Fat and High-Sucrose Diet-Fed Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062149

AMA Style

Gao Y, Yang L, Chin Y, Liu F, Li RW, Yuan S, Xue C, Xu J, Tang Q. Astaxanthin n-Octanoic Acid Diester Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Modulates Gut Microbiota in High-Fat and High-Sucrose Diet-Fed Mice. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(6):2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062149

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gao, Yuan; Yang, Lu; Chin, Yaoxian; Liu, Fang; Li, Robert W.; Yuan, Shihan; Xue, Changhu; Xu, Jie; Tang, Qingjuan. 2020. "Astaxanthin n-Octanoic Acid Diester Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Modulates Gut Microbiota in High-Fat and High-Sucrose Diet-Fed Mice" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 6: 2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062149

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