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Article

A Survey of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in Category A Select Agents, Exempt Strains, and Near-Neighbor Species

1
US Naval Research Laboratory, Center for Biomolecular Science & Engineering, Washington, DC 20375, USA
2
Karle’s Fellow, US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA
3
US Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC) Chemical Biological Center, Edgewood, MD 21010, USA
4
US Naval Medical Research Center - Biological Defense Research Directorate, Frederick, MD 20910, USA
5
Defense Biological Product Assurance Office, Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (CBRND), Frederick, MD 21702, USA
6
Logistics Management Institute, Tysons, VA 22012, USA
7
Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Joint Science and Technology Office, Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051669
Received: 8 January 2020 / Revised: 25 February 2020 / Accepted: 26 February 2020 / Published: 29 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Resistance Mechanisms in Bacteria)
A dramatic increase in global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been well documented. Of particular concern is the dearth of information regarding the spectrum and prevalence of AMR within Category A Select Agents. Here, we performed a survey of horizontally and vertically transferred AMR determinants among Category A agents and their near neighbors. Microarrays provided broad spectrum screening of 127 Francisella spp., Yersinia spp., and Bacillus spp. strains for the presence/absence of 500+ AMR genes (or families of genes). Detecting a broad variety of AMR genes in each genus, microarray analysis also picked up the presence of an engineered plasmid in a Y. pestis strain. High resolution melt analysis (HRMA) was also used to assess the presence of quinolone resistance-associated mutations in 100 of these strains. Though HRMA was able to detect resistance-causing point mutations in B. anthracis strains, it was not capable of discriminating these point mutations from other nucleotide substitutions (e.g., arising from sequence differences in near neighbors). Though these technologies are well-established, to our knowledge, this is the largest survey of Category A agents and their near-neighbor species for genes covering multiple mechanisms of AMR. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Yersinia spp.; Francisella spp.; Bacillus spp.; microarrays; high resolution melt analysis (HRMA); quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) Antimicrobial resistance; Yersinia spp.; Francisella spp.; Bacillus spp.; microarrays; high resolution melt analysis (HRMA); quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Taitt, C.R.; Leski, T.A.; Chen, A.; Berk, K.L.; Dorsey, R.W.; Gregory, M.J.; Sozhamannan, S.; Frey, K.G.; Dutt, D.L.; Vora, G.J. A Survey of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in Category A Select Agents, Exempt Strains, and Near-Neighbor Species. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1669. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051669

AMA Style

Taitt CR, Leski TA, Chen A, Berk KL, Dorsey RW, Gregory MJ, Sozhamannan S, Frey KG, Dutt DL, Vora GJ. A Survey of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in Category A Select Agents, Exempt Strains, and Near-Neighbor Species. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(5):1669. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051669

Chicago/Turabian Style

Taitt, Chris R., Tomasz A. Leski, Amy Chen, Kimberly L. Berk, Robert W. Dorsey, Michael J. Gregory, Shanmuga Sozhamannan, Kenneth G. Frey, Diane L. Dutt, and Gary J. Vora. 2020. "A Survey of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in Category A Select Agents, Exempt Strains, and Near-Neighbor Species" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 5: 1669. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051669

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