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Review

Persistent Breeding-Induced Endometritis in Mares—A Multifaceted Challenge: From Clinical Aspects to Immunopathogenesis and Pathobiology

1
Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61802, USA
2
Department of Animal Reproduction and Veterinary Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu 18618-000, São Paulo, Brazil
3
The Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40503, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041432
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 20 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embryo-Maternal Interactions Underlying Reproduction in Mammals)
Post-breeding endometritis (i.e., inflammation/infection of the endometrium), is a physiological reaction taking place in the endometrium of mares within 48 h post-breeding, aimed to clear seminal plasma, excess sperm, microorganisms, and debris from the uterine lumen in preparation for the arrival of an embryo. Mares are classified as susceptible or resistant to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) based on their ability to clear this inflammation/infection by 48 h post-breeding. Mares susceptible to PBIE, or those with difficulty clearing infection/inflammation, have a deficient immune response and compromised physical mechanisms of defense against infection. Molecular pathways of the innate immune response known to be involved in PBIE are discussed herein. The role of the adaptive uterine immune response on PBIE remains to be elucidated in horses. Advances in the pathobiology of microbes involved in PBIE are also revised here. Traditional and non-traditional therapeutic modalities for endometritis are contrasted and described in the context of clinical and molecular aspects. In recent years, the lack of efficacy of traditional therapeutic modalities, alongside the ever-increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, has enforced the development of non-traditional therapies. Novel biological products capable of modulating the endometrial inflammatory response are also discussed here as part of the non-traditional therapies for endometritis. View Full-Text
Keywords: subfertility; uterine infection; horses; inflammation; endometrium subfertility; uterine infection; horses; inflammation; endometrium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Canisso, I.F.; Segabinazzi, L.G.T.M.; Fedorka, C.E. Persistent Breeding-Induced Endometritis in Mares—A Multifaceted Challenge: From Clinical Aspects to Immunopathogenesis and Pathobiology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1432. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041432

AMA Style

Canisso IF, Segabinazzi LGTM, Fedorka CE. Persistent Breeding-Induced Endometritis in Mares—A Multifaceted Challenge: From Clinical Aspects to Immunopathogenesis and Pathobiology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(4):1432. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041432

Chicago/Turabian Style

Canisso, Igor F., Lorenzo G.T.M. Segabinazzi, and Carleigh E. Fedorka 2020. "Persistent Breeding-Induced Endometritis in Mares—A Multifaceted Challenge: From Clinical Aspects to Immunopathogenesis and Pathobiology" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 4: 1432. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041432

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