Boron is an essential plant micronutrient taken up via the roots mostly in the form of boric acid. Its important role in plant metabolism involves the stabilization of molecules with cis
-diol groups. The element is involved in the cell wall and membrane structure and functioning; therefore, it participates in numerous ion, metabolite, and hormone transport reactions. Boron has an extremely narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, and inadequate boron supply exhibits a detrimental effect on the yield of agricultural plants. The deficiency problem can be solved by fertilization, whereas soil boron toxicity can be ameliorated using various procedures; however, these approaches are costly and time-consuming, and they often show temporary effects. Plant species, as well as the genotypes within the species, dramatically differ in terms of boron requirements; thus, the available soil boron which is deficient for one crop may exhibit toxic effects on another. The widely documented intraspecies genetic variability regarding boron utilization efficiency and toxicity tolerance, together with the knowledge of the physiology and genetics of boron, should result in the development of efficient and tolerant varieties that may represent a long-term sustainable solution for the problem of inadequate or excess boron supply.
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