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Open AccessArticle

Beyond Microcystins: Cyanobacterial Extracts Induce Cytoskeletal Alterations in Rice Root Cells

1
Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Department of Botany, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249649
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 9 December 2020 / Accepted: 15 December 2020 / Published: 17 December 2020
Microcystins (MCs) are cyanobacterial toxins and potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), which are involved in plant cytoskeleton (microtubules and F-actin) organization. Therefore, studies on the toxicity of cyanobacterial products on plant cells have so far been focused on MCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of extracts from 16 (4 MC-producing and 12 non-MC-producing) cyanobacterial strains from several habitats, on various enzymes (PP1, trypsin, elastase), on the plant cytoskeleton and H2O2 levels in Oryza sativa (rice) root cells. Seedling roots were treated for various time periods (1, 12, and 24 h) with aqueous cyanobacterial extracts and underwent either immunostaining for α-tubulin or staining of F-actin with fluorescent phalloidin. 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) staining was performed for H2O2 imaging. The enzyme assays confirmed the bioactivity of the extracts of not only MC-rich (MC+), but also MC-devoid (MC−) extracts, which induced major time-dependent alterations on both components of the plant cytoskeleton. These findings suggest that a broad spectrum of bioactive cyanobacterial compounds, apart from MCs or other known cyanotoxins (such as cylindrospermopsin), can affect plants by disrupting the cytoskeleton. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive compounds; cyanobacteria; cytoskeleton; F-actin; microcystins; microtubules; Oryza sativa; oxidative stress; plant cell bioactive compounds; cyanobacteria; cytoskeleton; F-actin; microcystins; microtubules; Oryza sativa; oxidative stress; plant cell
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pappas, D.; Panou, M.; Adamakis, I.-D.S.; Gkelis, S.; Panteris, E. Beyond Microcystins: Cyanobacterial Extracts Induce Cytoskeletal Alterations in Rice Root Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9649. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249649

AMA Style

Pappas D, Panou M, Adamakis I-DS, Gkelis S, Panteris E. Beyond Microcystins: Cyanobacterial Extracts Induce Cytoskeletal Alterations in Rice Root Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9649. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249649

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pappas, Dimitris; Panou, Manthos; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Gkelis, Spyros; Panteris, Emmanuel. 2020. "Beyond Microcystins: Cyanobacterial Extracts Induce Cytoskeletal Alterations in Rice Root Cells" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 24: 9649. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249649

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