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Staying out or Going in? The Interplay between Type 3 and Type 5 Secretion Systems in Adhesion and Invasion of Enterobacterial Pathogens

Antimicrobial Resistance, Omics and Microbiota Group, Department of Biosciences, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4FQ, UK
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 4102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114102
Received: 12 May 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 8 June 2020
Enteric pathogens rely on a variety of toxins, adhesins and other virulence factors to cause infections. Some of the best studied pathogens belong to the Enterobacterales order; these include enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., and the enteropathogenic Yersiniae. The pathogenesis of these organisms involves two different secretion systems, a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) and type 5 secretion systems (T5SSs). The T3SS forms a syringe-like structure spanning both bacterial membranes and the host cell plasma membrane that translocates toxic effector proteins into the cytoplasm of the host cell. T5SSs are also known as autotransporters, and they export part of their own polypeptide to the bacterial cell surface where it exerts its function, such as adhesion to host cell receptors. During infection with these enteropathogens, the T3SS and T5SS act in concert to bring about rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton, either to invade the cell, confer intracellular motility, evade phagocytosis or produce novel structures to shelter the bacteria. Thus, in these bacteria, not only the T3SS effectors but also T5SS proteins could be considered “cytoskeletoxins” that bring about profound alterations in host cell cytoskeletal dynamics and lead to pathogenic outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: autotransporter; effector protein; EHEC; type 3 secretion system; Shigella; Yersinia autotransporter; effector protein; EHEC; type 3 secretion system; Shigella; Yersinia
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Whelan, R.; McVicker, G.; Leo, J.C. Staying out or Going in? The Interplay between Type 3 and Type 5 Secretion Systems in Adhesion and Invasion of Enterobacterial Pathogens. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4102.

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