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Tumor Hypoxia and Circulating Tumor Cells

Biophysics Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9592;
Received: 28 November 2020 / Revised: 11 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 16 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes, Environment and Cancer)
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a rare tumor cell subpopulation induced and selected by the tumor microenvironment’s extreme conditions. Under hypoxia and starvation, these aggressive and invasive cells are able to invade the lymphatic and circulatory systems. Escaping from the primary tumor, CTCs enter into the bloodstream to form metastatic deposits or re-establish themselves in cancer’s primary site. Although radiotherapy is widely used to cure solid malignancies, it can promote metastasis. Radiation can disrupt the primary tumor vasculature, increasing the dissemination of CTCs. Radiation also induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and eliminates suppressive signaling, causing the proliferation of existent, but previously dormant, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). In this review, we collect the results and evidence underlying the molecular mechanisms of CTCs and DTCs and the effects of radiation and hypoxia in developing these cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: CTCs; DTCs; EMT; metastasis; invasion; migration CTCs; DTCs; EMT; metastasis; invasion; migration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tinganelli, W.; Durante, M. Tumor Hypoxia and Circulating Tumor Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9592.

AMA Style

Tinganelli W, Durante M. Tumor Hypoxia and Circulating Tumor Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9592.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tinganelli, Walter, and Marco Durante. 2020. "Tumor Hypoxia and Circulating Tumor Cells" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 24: 9592.

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