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Review

Competing Endogenous RNA Networks as Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases

1
Department of Anatomy, Embryology and Animal Genetics, University of Zaragoza, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Agroalimentary Institute of Aragon (IA2), Institute of Health Research of Aragon (IIS), Calle Miguel Servet 13, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
2
Geriatrics Service, Hospital Nuestra Señora de Gracia, Calle Ramón y Cajal 60, 50004 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249582
Received: 16 November 2020 / Revised: 11 December 2020 / Accepted: 12 December 2020 / Published: 16 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases 2.0)
Protein aggregation is classically considered the main cause of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). However, increasing evidence suggests that alteration of RNA metabolism is a key factor in the etiopathogenesis of these complex disorders. Non-coding RNAs are the major contributor to the human transcriptome and are particularly abundant in the central nervous system, where they have been proposed to be involved in the onset and development of NDDs. Interestingly, some ncRNAs (such as lncRNAs, circRNAs and pseudogenes) share a common functionality in their ability to regulate gene expression by modulating miRNAs in a phenomenon known as the competing endogenous RNA mechanism. Moreover, ncRNAs are found in body fluids where their presence and concentration could serve as potential non-invasive biomarkers of NDDs. In this review, we summarize the ceRNA networks described in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinocerebellar ataxia type 7, and discuss their potential as biomarkers of these NDDs. Although numerous studies have been carried out, further research is needed to validate these complex interactions between RNAs and the alterations in RNA editing that could provide specific ceRNET profiles for neurodegenerative disorders, paving the way to a better understanding of these diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA); neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs); extracellular/circulating biomarkers; microRNA; long non-coding RNA; circular RNA; pseudogene; mRNA; ceRNA network (ceRNET); RNA editing competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA); neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs); extracellular/circulating biomarkers; microRNA; long non-coding RNA; circular RNA; pseudogene; mRNA; ceRNA network (ceRNET); RNA editing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moreno-García, L.; López-Royo, T.; Calvo, A.C.; Toivonen, J.M.; de la Torre, M.; Moreno-Martínez, L.; Molina, N.; Aparicio, P.; Zaragoza, P.; Manzano, R.; Osta, R. Competing Endogenous RNA Networks as Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9582. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249582

AMA Style

Moreno-García L, López-Royo T, Calvo AC, Toivonen JM, de la Torre M, Moreno-Martínez L, Molina N, Aparicio P, Zaragoza P, Manzano R, Osta R. Competing Endogenous RNA Networks as Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9582. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249582

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moreno-García, Leticia, Tresa López-Royo, Ana C. Calvo, Janne M. Toivonen, Miriam de la Torre, Laura Moreno-Martínez, Nora Molina, Paula Aparicio, Pilar Zaragoza, Raquel Manzano, and Rosario Osta. 2020. "Competing Endogenous RNA Networks as Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 24: 9582. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249582

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