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Copper Dyshomeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases—Therapeutic Implications

Collegium Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Wóycickiego 1/3 Street, 01-938 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Rehabilitation, Eleonora Reicher National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Clinic, Medical University of Warsaw, Spartańska 1 Street, 02-637 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Cellular Signalling, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Pawińskiego Street, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9259;
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 27 November 2020 / Accepted: 28 November 2020 / Published: 4 December 2020
Copper is one of the most abundant basic transition metals in the human body. It takes part in oxygen metabolism, collagen synthesis, and skin pigmentation, maintaining the integrity of blood vessels, as well as in iron homeostasis, antioxidant defense, and neurotransmitter synthesis. It may also be involved in cell signaling and may participate in modulation of membrane receptor-ligand interactions, control of kinase and related phosphatase functions, as well as many cellular pathways. Its role is also important in controlling gene expression in the nucleus. In the nervous system in particular, copper is involved in myelination, and by modulating synaptic activity as well as excitotoxic cell death and signaling cascades induced by neurotrophic factors, copper is important for various neuronal functions. Current data suggest that both excess copper levels and copper deficiency can be harmful, and careful homeostatic control is important. This knowledge opens up an important new area for potential therapeutic interventions based on copper supplementation or removal in neurodegenerative diseases including Wilson’s disease (WD), Menkes disease (MD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and others. However, much remains to be discovered, in particular, how to regulate copper homeostasis to prevent neurodegeneration, when to chelate copper, and when to supplement it. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; astrocytes; copper; neurodegeneration; neurons; Parkinson’s disease; treatment; Wilson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease; astrocytes; copper; neurodegeneration; neurons; Parkinson’s disease; treatment; Wilson’s disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gromadzka, G.; Tarnacka, B.; Flaga, A.; Adamczyk, A. Copper Dyshomeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases—Therapeutic Implications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9259.

AMA Style

Gromadzka G, Tarnacka B, Flaga A, Adamczyk A. Copper Dyshomeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases—Therapeutic Implications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23):9259.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gromadzka, Grażyna, Beata Tarnacka, Anna Flaga, and Agata Adamczyk. 2020. "Copper Dyshomeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases—Therapeutic Implications" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 23: 9259.

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