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Article

Genome and Karyotype Reorganization after Whole Genome Duplication in Free-Living Flatworms of the Genus Macrostomum

1
The Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Lavrentiev ave. 10, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
2
Evolutionary Biology, Zoological Institute, University of Basel, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland
3
Department of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020680
Received: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 20 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosome and Karyotype Variation)
The genus Macrostomum represents a diverse group of rhabditophoran flatworms with >200 species occurring around the world. Earlier we uncovered karyotype instability linked to hidden polyploidy in both M. lignano (2n = 8) and its sibling species M. janickei (2n = 10), prompting interest in the karyotype organization of close relatives. In this study, we investigated chromosome organization in two recently described and closely related Macrostomum species, M. mirumnovem and M. cliftonensis, and explored karyotype instability in laboratory lines and cultures of M. lignano (DV1/10, 2n = 10) and M. janickei in more detail. We revealed that three of the four studied species are characterized by karyotype instability, while M. cliftonensis showed a stable 2n = 6 karyotype. Next, we performed comparative cytogenetics of these species using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a set of DNA probes (including microdissected DNA probes generated from M. lignano chromosomes, rDNA, and telomeric DNA). To explore the chromosome organization of the unusual 2n = 9 karyotype discovered in M. mirumnovem, we then generated chromosome-specific DNA probes for all chromosomes of this species. Similar to M. lignano and M. janickei, our findings suggest that M. mirumnovem arose via whole genome duplication (WGD) followed by considerable chromosome reshuffling. We discuss possible evolutionary scenarios for the emergence and reorganization of the karyotypes of these Macrostomum species and consider their suitability as promising animal models for studying the mechanisms and regularities of karyotype and genome evolution after a recent WGD. View Full-Text
Keywords: karyotype instability; karyotypic and genomic diversity; genome evolution; repetitive DNA; aneuploidy; whole genome duplication; polyploidy; flatworms karyotype instability; karyotypic and genomic diversity; genome evolution; repetitive DNA; aneuploidy; whole genome duplication; polyploidy; flatworms
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3565311
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    Description: Captions for Figures S1-S3: Figure S1. A simplified molecular phylogeny of the interrelationships between the model species Macrostomum lignano and its close relatives that we analyzed here, based on a partial sequence of the mitochondrial COI gene. Note that multiple specimens were sequenced for all species. The nodal values represent bootstrap supports from a maximum likelihood tree reconstruction, using Macrostomum hystrix as the outgroup (for details on sample locations, specimen IDs, and phylogenetic analyses see Schärer et al. in press). Figure S2. FISH with microdissected DNA probes derived from M. lignano chromosomes (Mli2, green signal; Mli3_4, red signal) on metaphase chromosomes of (a) M. lignano DV1/10 and (b) M. janickei. Chromosomes were counter-stained with DAPI (blue signal). Scale bar 10 µm. Figure S3. Graphical depiction of possible scenarios including one WGD (a) (Scenario I) or two rounds of WGD (b, c) (Scenario II) in the evolution of the studied Macrostomum species. A black circle corresponds to a WGD through autotetraploidization, while a white circle corresponds to a WGD through allotetraploidization. (a) Scenario I, a common WGD event in the genome evolution of the post-WGD Macrostomum species, M. lignano, M. janickei, and M. mirumnovem. In this scenario the species M. cliftonensis would have diverged before the WGD event; (b) Scenario IIa, two independent WGD events, both through autotetraploidization, in the genome evolution of both the M. mirumnovem and the M. lignano/ M. janickei lineages; (c) Scenario IIb, two independent WGD events in the genome evolution of the studied post-WGD species, with the M. mirumnovem lineage showing a WGD through allopolyploidization, while the M. lignano/ M. janickei lineage resulted from a WGD through autopolyploidization.
MDPI and ACS Style

Zadesenets, K.S.; Jetybayev, I.Y.; Schärer, L.; Rubtsov, N.B. Genome and Karyotype Reorganization after Whole Genome Duplication in Free-Living Flatworms of the Genus Macrostomum. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 680. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020680

AMA Style

Zadesenets KS, Jetybayev IY, Schärer L, Rubtsov NB. Genome and Karyotype Reorganization after Whole Genome Duplication in Free-Living Flatworms of the Genus Macrostomum. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(2):680. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020680

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zadesenets, Kira S., Ilyas Y. Jetybayev, Lukas Schärer, and Nikolay B. Rubtsov 2020. "Genome and Karyotype Reorganization after Whole Genome Duplication in Free-Living Flatworms of the Genus Macrostomum" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 2: 680. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020680

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