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The Role of MicroRNAs in Mammalian Fertility: From Gametogenesis to Embryo Implantation

1
Institute of Animal Sciences, Animal Breeding and Husbandry, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 15, 53115 Bonn, Germany
2
Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 1351 Rampart Rd, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
3
Teaching and Research Station Frankenforst, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bonn, 53639 Königswinter, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020585
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embryo-Maternal Interactions Underlying Reproduction in Mammals)
The genetic codes inscribed during two key developmental processes, namely gametogenesis and embryogenesis, are believed to determine subsequent development and survival of adult life. Once the embryo is formed, its further development mainly depends on its intrinsic characteristics, maternal environment (the endometrial receptivity), and the embryo–maternal interactions established during each phase of development. These developmental processes are under strict genetic regulation that could be manifested temporally and spatially depending on the physiological and developmental status of the cell. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), one of the small non-coding classes of RNAs, approximately 19–22 nucleotides in length, are one of the candidates for post-transcriptional developmental regulators. These tiny non-coding RNAs are expressed in ovarian tissue, granulosa cells, testis, oocytes, follicular fluid, and embryos and are implicated in diverse biological processes such as cell-to-cell communication. Moreover, accumulated evidences have also highlighted that miRNAs can be released into the extracellular environment through different mechanisms facilitating intercellular communication. Therefore, understanding miRNAs mediated regulatory mechanisms during gametogenesis and embryogenesis provides further insights about the molecular mechanisms underlying oocyte/sperm formation, early embryo development, and implantation. Thus, this review highlights the role of miRNAs in mammalian gametogenesis and embryogenesis and summarizes recent findings about miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms occurring during early mammalian development. View Full-Text
Keywords: miRNA; gametogenesis; embryogenesis; mammals; fertility miRNA; gametogenesis; embryogenesis; mammals; fertility
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Salilew-Wondim, D.; Gebremedhn, S.; Hoelker, M.; Tholen, E.; Hailay, T.; Tesfaye, D. The Role of MicroRNAs in Mammalian Fertility: From Gametogenesis to Embryo Implantation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 585.

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