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Article

Peripheral Cytokine Levels Differ by HPV Status and Change Treatment-Dependently in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Ulm, 89070 Ulm, Germany
2
CRUK and NIHR Experimental Cancer Medicine Center & School of Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
3
Institute for Clinical Transfusion Medicine and Immune Genetics, German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, 89081 Ulm, Germany
4
Institute for Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
5
Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally and share first authorship.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 5990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21175990
Received: 23 July 2020 / Revised: 13 August 2020 / Accepted: 18 August 2020 / Published: 20 August 2020
Cytokines and immune mediators play an important role in the communication between immune cells guiding their response to infectious diseases or cancer. In this study, a comprehensive longitudinal analysis of serum cytokines and immune mediators in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients was performed. In a prospective, non-interventional, longitudinal study, blood samples from 22 HNSCC patients were taken at defined time points (TP) before, during, and every 3 months after completion of (chemo)radio)therapy (CRT/RT) until 12 months after treatment. Serum concentrations of 17 cytokines/immune mediators and High-Mobility-Group-Protein B1 (HMGB1) were measured by fluorescent bead array and ELISA. Concentrations of sFas were significantly elevated during and after CRT/RT, whereas perforin levels were significantly decreased after CRT/RT. Levels of MIP-1β and Granzyme B differed significantly during CRT/RT by HPV status. Increased HMGB1 levels were observed at recurrence, accompanied by high levels of IL-4 and IL-10. The sFas increase and simultaneous perforin decrease may indicate an impaired immune cell function during adjuvant radiotherapy. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in HPV+ compared to HPV− patients seem to reflect the elevated immunogenicity of HPV-positive tumors. High levels of HMGB1 and anti-inflammatory cytokines at recurrence may be interpreted as a sign of immune evasion. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokines; head and neck cancer; human papillomavirus (HPV); longitudinal study; Fas; perforin; High-Mobility-Group-Protein B1(HMGB1); tumor immune evasion; inflammation cytokines; head and neck cancer; human papillomavirus (HPV); longitudinal study; Fas; perforin; High-Mobility-Group-Protein B1(HMGB1); tumor immune evasion; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mytilineos, D.; Ezić, J.; von Witzleben, A.; Mytilineos, J.; Lotfi, R.; Fürst, D.; Tsamadou, C.; Theodoraki, M.-N.; Oster, A.; Völkel, G.; Kestler, H.A.; Brunner, C.; Schuler, P.J.; Doescher, J.; Hoffmann, T.K.; Laban, S. Peripheral Cytokine Levels Differ by HPV Status and Change Treatment-Dependently in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5990. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21175990

AMA Style

Mytilineos D, Ezić J, von Witzleben A, Mytilineos J, Lotfi R, Fürst D, Tsamadou C, Theodoraki M-N, Oster A, Völkel G, Kestler HA, Brunner C, Schuler PJ, Doescher J, Hoffmann TK, Laban S. Peripheral Cytokine Levels Differ by HPV Status and Change Treatment-Dependently in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(17):5990. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21175990

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mytilineos, Daphne, Jasmin Ezić, Adrian von Witzleben, Joannis Mytilineos, Ramin Lotfi, Daniel Fürst, Chrysanthi Tsamadou, Marie-Nicole Theodoraki, Angelika Oster, Gunnar Völkel, Hans A. Kestler, Cornelia Brunner, Patrick J. Schuler, Johannes Doescher, Thomas K. Hoffmann, and Simon Laban. 2020. "Peripheral Cytokine Levels Differ by HPV Status and Change Treatment-Dependently in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 17: 5990. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21175990

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