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Potential Mechanisms of Bisphenol A (BPA) Contributing to Human Disease

Department of Translational Medicine, Federico II University of Naples and URT “Genomic of Diabetes” of Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Oncology, National Council of Research (CNR), 80131 Naples, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5761;
Received: 6 July 2020 / Revised: 6 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 11 August 2020
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound serving as a monomer to produce polycarbonate plastic, widely used in the packaging for food and drinks, medical devices, thermal paper, and dental materials. BPA can contaminate food, beverage, air, and soil. It accumulates in several human tissues and organs and is potentially harmful to human health through different molecular mechanisms. Due to its hormone-like properties, BPA may bind to estrogen receptors, thereby affecting both body weight and tumorigenesis. BPA may also affect metabolism and cancer progression, by interacting with GPR30, and may impair male reproductive function, by binding to androgen receptors. Several transcription factors, including PPARγ, C/EBP, Nrf2, HOX, and HAND2, are involved in BPA action on fat and liver homeostasis, the cardiovascular system, and cancer. Finally, epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, histones modification, and changes in microRNAs expression contribute to BPA pathological effects. This review aims to provide an extensive and comprehensive analysis of the most recent evidence about the potential mechanisms by which BPA affects human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: bisphenol A; receptors; transcription factors; epigenetics; metabolism; cancer bisphenol A; receptors; transcription factors; epigenetics; metabolism; cancer
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Cimmino, I.; Fiory, F.; Perruolo, G.; Miele, C.; Beguinot, F.; Formisano, P.; Oriente, F. Potential Mechanisms of Bisphenol A (BPA) Contributing to Human Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5761.

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