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Review

Sarcopenia in Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review

1
Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
2
Laboratory Microorganismes and Active Biomolecules, Sciences Faculty of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunis 2092, Tunisia
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Interdepartmental Research Center of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics (CRIFF), University of Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy
4
Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
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Department of Rheumatology, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju 26426, Korea
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Department of Nephrology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju 26426, Korea
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The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
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Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, 08830 Barcelona, Spain
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ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 78000 Versailles, France
11
University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
12
Department of Internal Medicine IV (Nephrology and Hypertension), Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165678
Received: 9 July 2020 / Revised: 2 August 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 7 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism and Pathogenesis of Sarcopenia)
Sarcopenia refers to a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and function. Because sarcopenia affects mortality, and causes significant disability, the clinical importance of sarcopenia is emerging. At first, sarcopenia was recognized as an age-related disease but, recently, it has been reported to be prevalent also in younger patients with autoimmune diseases. Specifically, the association of sarcopenia and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis has been studied in detail. Although the pathogenesis of sarcopenia in autoimmune diseases has not been elucidated, chronic inflammation is believed to contribute to sarcopenia, and moreover the pathogenesis seems to be different depending on the respective underlying disease. The definition of sarcopenia differs among studies, which limits direct comparisons. Therefore, in this review, we cover various definitions of sarcopenia used in previous studies and highlight the prevalence of sarcopenia in diverse autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmune diabetes. In addition, we cover the pathogenesis and treatment of sarcopenia in autoimmune and rheumatic diseases. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of sarcopenia in various autoimmune diseases and highlights the need for a consistent definition of sarcopenia. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; rheumatic disease; autoimmune disease; rheumatoid arthritis; inflammatory bowel disease; type 1 diabetes sarcopenia; rheumatic disease; autoimmune disease; rheumatoid arthritis; inflammatory bowel disease; type 1 diabetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

An, H.J.; Tizaoui, K.; Terrazzino, S.; Cargnin, S.; Lee, K.H.; Nam, S.W.; Kim, J.S.; Yang, J.W.; Lee, J.Y.; Smith, L.; Koyanagi, A.; Jacob, L.; Li, H.; Shin, J.I.; Kronbichler, A. Sarcopenia in Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5678. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165678

AMA Style

An HJ, Tizaoui K, Terrazzino S, Cargnin S, Lee KH, Nam SW, Kim JS, Yang JW, Lee JY, Smith L, Koyanagi A, Jacob L, Li H, Shin JI, Kronbichler A. Sarcopenia in Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(16):5678. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165678

Chicago/Turabian Style

An, Hyo J., Kalthoum Tizaoui, Salvatore Terrazzino, Sarah Cargnin, Keum H. Lee, Seoung W. Nam, Jae S. Kim, Jae W. Yang, Jun Y. Lee, Lee Smith, Ai Koyanagi, Louis Jacob, Han Li, Jae I. Shin, and Andreas Kronbichler. 2020. "Sarcopenia in Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 16: 5678. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165678

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