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Open AccessArticle

Antitumor Efficacy of the Herbal Recipe Benja Amarit against Highly Invasive Cholangiocarcinoma by Inducing Apoptosis both In Vitro and In Vivo

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
3
Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products (CRD-HHP), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165669
Received: 21 July 2020 / Revised: 3 August 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 7 August 2020
Thailand is the country with highest incidence and prevalence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in the world. Due to the frequently late diagnosis that is associated with this disease, most CCA patients are prescribed chemotherapy as a form of treatment. However, CCA is able to resist the presently available chemotherapy, so to the prognosis of this disease is still very poor. In this study, we investigated the anticancer potential of a Thai herbal recipe, Benja Amarit (BJA) against CCA and the relevant mechanisms of action that are involved. We found that BJA inhibited CCA cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, especially in highly invasive KKU-213 cells. The extract induced mitochondrial- and caspase-dependent apoptosis in CCA cells by regulating the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. BJA also triggered autophagy in CCA cells. Nonetheless, the inhibition of autophagy enhanced BJA-induced CCA cell death via apoptosis. An in vivo xenograft model revealed the growth-inhibiting and death-inducing effects of BJA against CCA by targeting apoptosis. However, general toxicity to blood cells, kidneys and the liver, as well as changes in body weight, did not appear. Our findings suggest that the herbal recipe BJA might be used as a potentially new and effective treatment for cholangiocarcinoma patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Benja Amarit; BJA; herbal recipe; cholangiocarcinoma; liver cancer; apoptosis; autophagy; in vitro; in vivo Benja Amarit; BJA; herbal recipe; cholangiocarcinoma; liver cancer; apoptosis; autophagy; in vitro; in vivo
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yapasert, R.; Lertprasertsuk, N.; Subhawa, S.; Poofery, J.; Sripanidkulchai, B.; Banjerdpongchai, R. Antitumor Efficacy of the Herbal Recipe Benja Amarit against Highly Invasive Cholangiocarcinoma by Inducing Apoptosis both In Vitro and In Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5669. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165669

AMA Style

Yapasert R, Lertprasertsuk N, Subhawa S, Poofery J, Sripanidkulchai B, Banjerdpongchai R. Antitumor Efficacy of the Herbal Recipe Benja Amarit against Highly Invasive Cholangiocarcinoma by Inducing Apoptosis both In Vitro and In Vivo. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(16):5669. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165669

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yapasert, Rittibet; Lertprasertsuk, Nirush; Subhawa, Subhawat; Poofery, Juthathip; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Banjerdpongchai, Ratana. 2020. "Antitumor Efficacy of the Herbal Recipe Benja Amarit against Highly Invasive Cholangiocarcinoma by Inducing Apoptosis both In Vitro and In Vivo" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 16: 5669. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165669

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