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Immune Landscape in Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for Biomarker Development and Immunotherapy

Lipids in Human Pathology, Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), Research Unit, University Hospital Son Espases, 07120 Palma, Spain
Translational Immunology Laboratory, Health Research Institute of the Principality of Asturias, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, 33011 Oviedo, Spain
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy
SOD of Interdisciplinary Internal Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi (AOUC), 50134 Florence, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5521;
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 31 July 2020 / Published: 1 August 2020
Integration of the tumor microenvironment as a fundamental part of the tumorigenic process has undoubtedly revolutionized our understanding of cancer biology. Increasing evidence indicates that neoplastic cells establish a dependency relationship with normal resident cells in the affected tissue and, furthermore, develop the ability to recruit new accessory cells that aid tumor development. In addition to normal stromal and tumor cells, this tumor ecosystem includes an infiltrated immune component that establishes complex interactions that have a critical effect during the natural history of the tumor. The process by which immune cells modulate tumor progression is known as immunoediting, a dynamic process that creates a selective pressure that finally leads to the generation of immune-resistant cells and the inability of the immune system to eradicate the tumor. In this context, the cellular and functional characterization of the immune compartment within the tumor microenvironment will help to understand tumor progression and, ultimately, will serve to create novel prognostic tools and improve patient stratification for cancer treatment. Here we review the impact of the immune system on tumor development, focusing particularly on its clinical implications and the current technologies used to analyze immune cell diversity within the tumor. View Full-Text
Keywords: tumor microenvironment; immune response; immunomodulation tumor microenvironment; immune response; immunomodulation
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Pérez-Romero, K.; Rodríguez, R.M.; Amedei, A.; Barceló-Coblijn, G.; Lopez, D.H. Immune Landscape in Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for Biomarker Development and Immunotherapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5521.

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