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Open AccessArticle

Cellular Fragments as Biomaterial for Rapid In Vitro Bone-Like Tissue Synthesis

Department of Biomaterials, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-Ku, Okayama-shi, Okayama-ken 700-8558, Japan
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155327
Received: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 27 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Bone Regeneration: Biomaterials and Cells)
Current stem cell-based techniques for bone-like tissue synthesis require at least two to three weeks. Therefore, novel techniques to promote rapid 3D bone-like tissue synthesis in vitro are still required. In this study, we explored the concept of using cell nanofragments as a substrate material to promote rapid bone formation in vitro. The methods for cell nanofragment fabrication were ultrasonication (30 s and 3 min), non-ionic detergent (triton 0.1% and 1%), or freeze-dried powder. The results showed that ultrasonication for 3 min allowed the fabrication of homogeneous nanofragments of less than 150 nm in length, which mineralized surprisingly in just one day, faster than the fragments obtained from all other methods. Further optimization of culture conditions indicated that a concentration of 10 mM or 100 mM of β-glycerophosphate enhanced, whereas fetal bovine serum (FBS) inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner, the mineralization of the cell nanofragments. Finally, a 3D collagen-cell nanofragment-mineral complex mimicking a bone-like structure was generated in just two days by combining the cell nanofragments in collagen gel. In conclusion, sonication for three min could be applied as a novel method to fabricate cell nanofragments of less than 150 nm in length, which can be used as a material for in vitro bone tissue engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone tissue engineering; cell nanofragments; dead cells; mineralization; osteogenesis bone tissue engineering; cell nanofragments; dead cells; mineralization; osteogenesis
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Akhter, M.N.; Hara, E.S.; Kadoya, K.; Okada, M.; Matsumoto, T. Cellular Fragments as Biomaterial for Rapid In Vitro Bone-Like Tissue Synthesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5327.

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