Next Article in Journal
Interleukin-6 in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Next Article in Special Issue
Premature Activation of Immune Transcription Programs in Autoimmune-Predisposed Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Blastocysts
Previous Article in Journal
The Biological and Clinical Role of the Long Non-Coding RNA LOC642852 in Ovarian Carcinoma
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Roles of Immune Cells in the Pathogenesis of Fibrosis
Open AccessReview

Immune Cell Therapies to Improve Regeneration and Revascularization of Non-Healing Wounds

by Elena Groppa 1,†, Andrea Colliva 1,2,†, Roman Vuerich 1,3,†, Tea Kocijan 1 and Serena Zacchigna 1,2,*
Cardiovascular Biology Laboratory, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), 34149 Trieste, Italy
Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed as first authors.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5235;
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 20 July 2020 / Accepted: 21 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Cell Mediated Tissue Regeneration)
With the increased prevalence of chronic diseases, non-healing wounds place a significant burden on the health system and the quality of life of affected patients. Non-healing wounds are full-thickness skin lesions that persist for months or years. While several factors contribute to their pathogenesis, all non-healing wounds consistently demonstrate inadequate vascularization, resulting in the poor supply of oxygen, nutrients, and growth factors at the level of the lesion. Most existing therapies rely on the use of dermal substitutes, which help the re-epithelialization of the lesion by mimicking a pro-regenerative extracellular matrix. However, in most patients, this approach is not efficient, as non-healing wounds principally affect individuals afflicted with vascular disorders, such as peripheral artery disease and/or diabetes. Over the last 25 years, innovative therapies have been proposed with the aim of fostering the regenerative potential of multiple immune cell types. This can be achieved by promoting cell mobilization into the circulation, their recruitment to the wound site, modulation of their local activity, or their direct injection into the wound. In this review, we summarize preclinical and clinical studies that have explored the potential of various populations of immune cells to promote skin regeneration in non-healing wounds and critically discuss the current limitations that prevent the adoption of these therapies in the clinics. View Full-Text
Keywords: wound healing; cell therapy; animal models; clinical trials wound healing; cell therapy; animal models; clinical trials
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Groppa, E.; Colliva, A.; Vuerich, R.; Kocijan, T.; Zacchigna, S. Immune Cell Therapies to Improve Regeneration and Revascularization of Non-Healing Wounds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5235.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop