Next Article in Journal
Pharmacogenomics of Hypertension Treatment
Previous Article in Journal
Metabolic Characterisation of the Midgut of Bombyx mori Varieties after BmNPV Infection Using GC-MS-Based Metabolite Profiling
Previous Article in Special Issue
Degradation Mechanism of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Fungi Isolated from Marine Invertebrates
Open AccessReview

Coumarin-Based Profluorescent and Fluorescent Substrates for Determining Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities In Vitro

1
School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 70600 Kuopio, Finland
2
Institute of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134708
Received: 16 June 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 30 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification of Metabolites of Xenobiotics)
in vivo methods, such as spectrophotometric, fluorometric, mass spectrometric,
and radioactivity-based techniques. In fluorescence-based assays, the reaction produces a fluorescent
product from a nonfluorescent substrate or vice versa. Fluorescence-based enzyme assays are
usually highly sensitive and specific, allowing measurements on small specimens of tissues with
low enzyme activities. Fluorescence assays are also amenable to miniaturization of the reaction
mixtures and can thus be done in high throughput. 7-Hydroxycoumarin and its derivatives are
widely used as fluorophores due to their desirable photophysical properties. They possess a large -
conjugated system with electron-rich and charge transfer properties. This conjugated structure leads
to applications of 7-hydroxycoumarins as fluorescent sensors for biological activities. We describe in
this review historical highlights and current use of coumarins and their derivatives in evaluating
activities of the major types of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme systems. Traditionally, coumarin
substrates have been used to measure oxidative activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. For this
purpose, profluorescent coumarins are very sensitive, but generally lack selectivity for individual CYP
forms. With the aid of molecular modeling, we have recently described several new coumarin-based
substrates for measuring activities of CYP and conjugating enzymes with improved selectivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytochrome P450; CYP; glucuronidation; sulfonation; methylation; fluorescence; molecular modeling, enzyme cytochrome P450; CYP; glucuronidation; sulfonation; methylation; fluorescence; molecular modeling, enzyme
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Raunio, H.; Pentikäinen, O.; Juvonen, R.O. Coumarin-Based Profluorescent and Fluorescent Substrates for Determining Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities In Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4708.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop