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Article

Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression in Long-Term Endurance and Resistance Trained Elderly

1
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna School of Medicine, 40138 Bologna, Italy
2
IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, 20148 Milan, Italy
3
Applied and Translational Research Center, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
4
Giorgio Prodi Interdepartimental Center for Cancer Research, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy
5
Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
6
Second Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Clinic, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
7
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rehabilitation Research, 1160 Wien, Austria
8
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Knee Joint Reconstruction Center, 3rd Orthopaedic Division, Humanitas Clinical Institute, Humanitas University, 20089 Milan, Italy
9
Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padua, 35122 Padua, Italy
10
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, 35131 Padua, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors shared co-senior authorship.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 3988; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113988
Received: 7 May 2020 / Revised: 23 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 2 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Bases of Senescence)
Physical exercise is deemed the most efficient way of counteracting the age-related decline of skeletal muscle. Here we report a transcriptional study by next-generation sequencing of vastus lateralis biopsies from elderly with a life-long high-level training practice (n = 9) and from age-matched sedentary subjects (n = 5). Unsupervised mixture distribution analysis was able to correctly categorize trained and untrained subjects, whereas it failed to discriminate between individuals who underwent a prevalent endurance (n = 5) or a prevalent resistance (n = 4) training, thus showing that the training mode was not relevant for sarcopenia prevention. KEGG analysis of transcripts showed that physical exercise affected a high number of metabolic and signaling pathways, in particular those related to energy handling and mitochondrial biogenesis, where AMPK and AKT-mTOR signaling pathways are both active and balance each other, concurring to the establishment of an insulin-sensitive phenotype and to the maintenance of a functional muscle mass. Other pathways affected by exercise training increased the efficiency of the proteostatic mechanisms, consolidated the cytoskeletal organization, lowered the inflammation level, and contrasted cellular senescence. This study on extraordinary individuals who trained at high level for at least thirty years suggests that aging processes and exercise training travel the same paths in the opposite direction. View Full-Text
Keywords: skeletal muscle; sarcopenia; aging; exercise; endurance and resistance training; gene expression skeletal muscle; sarcopenia; aging; exercise; endurance and resistance training; gene expression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bolotta, A.; Filardo, G.; Abruzzo, P.M.; Astolfi, A.; De Sanctis, P.; Di Martino, A.; Hofer, C.; Indio, V.; Kern, H.; Löfler, S.; Marcacci, M.; Zampieri, S.; Marini, M.; Zucchini, C. Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression in Long-Term Endurance and Resistance Trained Elderly. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3988. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113988

AMA Style

Bolotta A, Filardo G, Abruzzo PM, Astolfi A, De Sanctis P, Di Martino A, Hofer C, Indio V, Kern H, Löfler S, Marcacci M, Zampieri S, Marini M, Zucchini C. Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression in Long-Term Endurance and Resistance Trained Elderly. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(11):3988. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113988

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bolotta, Alessandra, Giuseppe Filardo, Provvidenza M. Abruzzo, Annalisa Astolfi, Paola De Sanctis, Alessandro Di Martino, Christian Hofer, Valentina Indio, Helmut Kern, Stefan Löfler, Maurilio Marcacci, Sandra Zampieri, Marina Marini, and Cinzia Zucchini. 2020. "Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression in Long-Term Endurance and Resistance Trained Elderly" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 11: 3988. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113988

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