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Role and Mechanisms of RAGE-Ligand Complexes and RAGE-Inhibitors in Cancer Progression

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Damanhour 22511, Egypt
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY (RPI), Troy, NY 12180, USA
Department of Hematology/Pediatric Oncology, King Abdulaziz University, Yousef Abdulatif Jameel Scientific Chair of Prophetic Medicine Application, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
The Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3613;
Received: 28 March 2020 / Revised: 2 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Interactions of the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) and its ligands in the context of their role in diabetes mellitus, inflammation, and carcinogenesis have been extensively investigated. This review focuses on the role of RAGE-ligands and anti-RAGE drugs capable of controlling cancer progression. Different studies have demonstrated interaction of RAGE with a diverse range of acidic (negatively charged) ligands such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1), and S100s, and their importance to cancer progression. Some RAGE-ligands displayed effects on anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins through upregulation of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, while downregulating p53 in cancer progression. In addition, RAGE may undergo ligand-driven multimodal dimerization or oligomerization mediated through self-association of some of its subunits. We conclude our review by proposing possible future lines of study that could result in control of cancer progression through RAGE inhibition. View Full-Text
Keywords: RAGE-ligands; AGEs; HMGB1; S100s; RAGE-inhibitors; carcinogenesis RAGE-ligands; AGEs; HMGB1; S100s; RAGE-inhibitors; carcinogenesis
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El-Far, A.H.; Sroga, G.; Al Jaouni, S.K.; Mousa, S.A. Role and Mechanisms of RAGE-Ligand Complexes and RAGE-Inhibitors in Cancer Progression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3613.

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