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Re-Setting the Circadian Clock Using Exercise against Sarcopenia
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Physical Exercise and Myokines: Relationships with Sarcopenia and Cardiovascular Complications

Postgraduate Program in Structural and Functional Interactions in Rehabilitation, University of Marilia (UNIMAR), Avenue Hygino Muzzy Filho, 1001, Marília 17525-902, São Paulo, Brazil
School of Medicine, University of Marília (UNIMAR), Avenida Higino Muzzi Filho, 1001, Marília 17506-000, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Food Technology School, Marília 17525-902, São Paulo, Brazil
Medical School, University Center of Adamantina (UniFAI), Adamantina 17800-000, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Biological Sciences, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo (FOB–USP), Alameda Doutor Octávio Pinheiro Brisolla, 9-75, Bauru 17012901, São Paulo, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3607;
Received: 6 May 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 19 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Aging and Sarcopenia in the Elderly )
Skeletal muscle is capable of secreting different factors in order to communicate with other tissues. These mediators, the myokines, show potentially far-reaching effects on non-muscle tissues and can provide a molecular interaction between muscle and body physiology. Sarcopenia is a chronic degenerative neuromuscular disease closely related to cardiomyopathy and chronic heart failure, which influences the production and release of myokines. Our objective was to explore the relationship between myokines, sarcopenia, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions of myokines include regulation of energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, lipolysis, free fatty acid oxidation, adipocyte browning, glycogenolysis, glycogenesis, and general metabolism. A sedentary lifestyle accelerates the aging process and is a risk factor for developing sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, and CVD. Increased adipose tissue resulting from the decrease in muscle mass in patients with sarcopenia may also be involved in the pathology of CVD. Myokines are protagonists in the complex condition of sarcopenia, which is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with CVD. The discovery of new pathways and the link between myokines and CVD remain a cornerstone toward multifaceted interventions and perhaps the minimization of the damage resulting from muscle loss induced by factors such as atherosclerosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; myokines; cardiovascular diseases sarcopenia; myokines; cardiovascular diseases
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Barbalho, S.M.; Flato, U.A.P.; Tofano, R.J.; Goulart, R.A.; Guiguer, E.L.; Detregiachi, C.R.P.; Buchaim, D.V.; Araújo, A.C.; Buchaim, R.L.; Reina, F.T.R.; Biteli, P.; Reina, D.O.B.R.; Bechara, M.D. Physical Exercise and Myokines: Relationships with Sarcopenia and Cardiovascular Complications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3607.

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