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Open AccessArticle

New Insights on Vitamin K Metabolism in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) Based on Ontogenetic and Tissue-Specific Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Molecular Data

1
Campus de Vegazana, Universidad de León (ULE), s/n, 24071 León, Spain
2
Centro de Ciências do Mar (CCMAR), Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
3
Departamento de Ciências Biomédicas e Medicina (DCBM), Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
4
Center for Aquaculture Research, Agrarian Technological Institute of Castile and Leon, Ctra. Arévalo, S/n. Zamarramala, 40196 Segovia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103489
Received: 6 April 2020 / Revised: 7 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 15 May 2020
Vitamin K (VK) is a key nutrient for several biological processes (e.g., blood clotting and bone metabolism). To fulfill VK nutritional requirements, VK action as an activator of pregnane X receptor (Pxr) signaling pathway, and as a co-factor of γ-glutamyl carboxylase enzyme, should be considered. In this regard, VK recycling through vitamin K epoxide reductases (Vkors) is essential and should be better understood. Here, the expression patterns of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (vkorc1) and vkorc1 like 1 (vkorc1l1) were determined during the larval ontogeny of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), and in early juveniles cultured under different physiological conditions. Full-length transcripts for ssvkorc1 and ssvkorc1l1 were determined and peptide sequences were found to be evolutionarily conserved. During larval development, expression of ssvkorc1 showed a slight increase during absence or low feed intake. Expression of ssvkorc1l1 continuously decreased until 24 h post-fertilization, and remained constant afterwards. Both ssvkors were ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues, and highest expression was found in liver for ssvkorc1, and ovary and brain for ssvkorc1l1. Expression of ssvkorc1 and ssvkorc1l1 was differentially regulated under physiological conditions related to fasting and re-feeding, but also under VK dietary supplementation and induced deficiency. The present work provides new and basic molecular clues evidencing how VK metabolism in marine fish is sensitive to nutritional and environmental conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitamin K; gene expression; evolution; flatfish; nutrition; pollution Vitamin K; gene expression; evolution; flatfish; nutrition; pollution
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Beato, S.; Marques, C.; Laizé, V.; Gavaia, P.J.; Fernández, I. New Insights on Vitamin K Metabolism in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) Based on Ontogenetic and Tissue-Specific Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Molecular Data. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3489.

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