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Calcium-Binding Proteins in the Nervous System during Hibernation: Neuroprotective Strategies in Hypometabolic Conditions?

1
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
2
Former Full Professor of Zoology, Neurogenesis and Comparative Neuromorphology, (Residence address) Viale Matteotti 73, I-27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092364
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium-Binding Proteins and Cell Signaling)
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Abstract

Calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) can influence and react to Ca2+ transients and modulate the activity of proteins involved in both maintaining homeostatic conditions and protecting cells in harsh environmental conditions. Hibernation is a strategy that evolved in vertebrate and invertebrate species to survive in cold environments; it relies on molecular, cellular, and behavioral adaptations guided by the neuroendocrine system that together ensure unmatched tolerance to hypothermia, hypometabolism, and hypoxia. Therefore, hibernation is a useful model to study molecular neuroprotective adaptations to extreme conditions, and can reveal useful applications to human pathological conditions. In this review, we describe the known changes in Ca2+-signaling and the detection and activity of CBPs in the nervous system of vertebrate and invertebrate models during hibernation, focusing on cytosolic Ca2+ buffers and calmodulin. Then, we discuss these findings in the context of the neuroprotective and neural plasticity mechanisms in the central nervous system: in particular, those associated with cytoskeletal proteins. Finally, we compare the expression of CBPs in the hibernating nervous system with two different conditions of neurodegeneration, i.e., platinum-induced neurotoxicity and Alzheimer’s disease, to highlight the similarities and differences and demonstrate the potential of hibernation to shed light into part of the molecular mechanisms behind neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium-binding proteins; hibernation; central nervous system; cytoskeleton proteins; neuroprotection; neurodegeneration calcium-binding proteins; hibernation; central nervous system; cytoskeleton proteins; neuroprotection; neurodegeneration
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Gattoni, G.; Bernocchi, G. Calcium-Binding Proteins in the Nervous System during Hibernation: Neuroprotective Strategies in Hypometabolic Conditions? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2364.

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