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Medical Treatment for Osteoporosis: From Molecular to Clinical Opinions

1,2, 1 and 3,4,*
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Tzu-Chi Hospital, The Buddhist Tzu-Chi Medical Foundation, Taipei 23142, Taiwan
School of Medicine, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien 97004, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2213;
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapies)
PDF [559 KB, uploaded 6 May 2019]


Osteoporosis is a major concern all over the world. With aging, a gradual loss of bone mass results in osteopenia and osteoporosis. Heritable factors account for 60–80% of optimal bone mineralization. Modifiable factors, such as weight-bearing exercise, nutrition, body mass, and hormonal milieu, play an important role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis in adulthood. Currently, anti-resorptive agents, including estrogen, bisphosphonates, and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), are the drugs of choice for osteoporosis. Other treatments include parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as the nutritional support of calcium and vitamin D. New treatments such as tissue-selective estrogen receptor complexes (TSECs) are currently in use too. This review, which is based on a systematic appraisal of the current literature, provides current molecular and genetic opinions on osteoporosis and its medical treatment. It offers evidence-based information to help researchers and clinicians with osteoporosis assessment. However, many issues regarding osteoporosis and its treatment remain unknown or controversial and warrant future investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoporosis; anti-resorptive drugs; molecular pathway; genetics osteoporosis; anti-resorptive drugs; molecular pathway; genetics

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, L.-R.; Ko, N.-Y.; Chen, K.-H. Medical Treatment for Osteoporosis: From Molecular to Clinical Opinions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2213.

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