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Membrane Lipid Composition: Effect on Membrane and Organelle Structure, Function and Compartmentalization and Therapeutic Avenues

1
Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biomedicine, University of the Balearic Islands, 07121 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
2
Lipopharma Therapeutics, Isaac Newton, 07121 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092167
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Regulation of the Endomembrane System)
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Abstract

Biological membranes are key elements for the maintenance of cell architecture and physiology. Beyond a pure barrier separating the inner space of the cell from the outer, the plasma membrane is a scaffold and player in cell-to-cell communication and the initiation of intracellular signals among other functions. Critical to this function is the plasma membrane compartmentalization in lipid microdomains that control the localization and productive interactions of proteins involved in cell signal propagation. In addition, cells are divided into compartments limited by other membranes whose integrity and homeostasis are finely controlled, and which determine the identity and function of the different organelles. Here, we review current knowledge on membrane lipid composition in the plasma membrane and endomembrane compartments, emphasizing its role in sustaining organelle structure and function. The correct composition and structure of cell membranes define key pathophysiological aspects of cells. Therefore, we explore the therapeutic potential of manipulating membrane lipid composition with approaches like membrane lipid therapy, aiming to normalize cell functions through the modification of membrane lipid bilayers. View Full-Text
Keywords: membrane; lipid; therapy; endomembrane; structure; composition; 2OHOA membrane; lipid; therapy; endomembrane; structure; composition; 2OHOA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Casares, D.; Escribá, P.V.; Rosselló, C.A. Membrane Lipid Composition: Effect on Membrane and Organelle Structure, Function and Compartmentalization and Therapeutic Avenues. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2167.

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