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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081906

Comparative Transcriptomic Studies on a Cadmium Hyperaccumulator Viola baoshanensis and Its Non-Tolerant Counterpart V. inconspicua

1
State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
2
School of Biosciences and Biopharmaceutics, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Biotechnology Drug Candidates, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China
3
Shenzhen Key Lab of Marine Genomics, Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Molecular Breeding in Marine Economic Animals, BGI Academy of Marine Sciences, BGI Marine, BGI, Shenzhen 518083, China
4
School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals Accumulation, Toxicity and Detoxification in Plants)
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Abstract

Many Viola plants growing in mining areas exhibit high levels of cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation, and thus are ideal organisms for comparative studies on molecular mechanisms of Cd hyperaccumulation. However, transcriptomic studies of hyperaccumulative plants in Violaceae are rare. Viola baoshanensis is an amazing Cd hyperaccumulator in metalliferous areas of China, whereas its relative V. inconspicua is a non-tolerant accumulator that resides at non-metalliferous sites. Here, comparative studies by transcriptome sequencing were performed to investigate the key pathways that are potentially responsible for the differential levels of Cd tolerance between these two Viola species. A cascade of genes involved in the ubiquitin proteosome system (UPS) pathway were observed to have constitutively higher transcription levels and more activation in response to Cd exposure in V. baoshanensis, implying that the enhanced degradation of misfolded proteins may lead to high resistance against Cd in this hyperaccumulator. Many genes related to sucrose metabolism, especially those involved in callose and trehalose biosynthesis, are among the most differentially expressed genes between the two Viola species, suggesting a crucial role of sucrose metabolism not only in cell wall modification through carbon supply but also in the antioxidant system as signaling molecules or antioxidants. A comparison among transcriptional patterns of some known transporters revealed that several tonoplast transporters are up-regulated in V. baoshanensis under Cd stress, suggesting more efficient compartmentalization of Cd in the vacuoles. Taken together, our findings provide valuable insight into Cd hypertolerance in V. baoshanensis, and the corresponding molecular mechanisms will be useful for future genetic engineering in phytoremediation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cadmium; hyperaccumulator; Viola baoshanensis; transcriptome; detoxification Cadmium; hyperaccumulator; Viola baoshanensis; transcriptome; detoxification
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Shu, H.; Zhang, J.; Liu, F.; Bian, C.; Liang, J.; Liang, J.; Liang, W.; Lin, Z.; Shu, W.; Li, J.; Shi, Q.; Liao, B. Comparative Transcriptomic Studies on a Cadmium Hyperaccumulator Viola baoshanensis and Its Non-Tolerant Counterpart V. inconspicua. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1906.

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