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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081819

Gangliosides Contribute to Vascular Insulin Resistance

Department of Geriatric Medicine (Vascular Medicine), Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Sakaecho 35-2, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan
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Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 23 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract

Insulin in physiological concentrations is important to maintain vascular function. Moreover, vascular insulin resistance contributes to vascular impairment. In the elderly, other factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and chronic inflammation amplify senescence of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In turn, senescence increases the risk for vascular-related diseases such as arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, it was found that GM1 ganglioside, one of the glycolipids localized on the cell membrane, mediates vascular insulin resistance by promoting senescence and/or inflammatory stimulation. First, it was shown that increased GM1 levels associated with aging/senescence contribute to insulin resistance in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Second, the expression levels of gangliosides were monitored in HAECs treated with different concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) for different time intervals to mimic in vivo acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. Third, the levels of insulin signaling-related molecules were monitored in HAECs after TNFα treatment with or without inhibitors of ganglioside synthesis. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in aged/senescent and TNFα-stimulated endothelial cells mediated by gangliosides and highlight the possible roles of gangliosides in vascular insulin resistance-related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: endothelial cell; aging; senescence; inflammation; GM1 ganglioside; vascular insulin resistance endothelial cell; aging; senescence; inflammation; GM1 ganglioside; vascular insulin resistance
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Sasaki, N.; Itakura, Y.; Toyoda, M. Gangliosides Contribute to Vascular Insulin Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1819.

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