Cross-Talk between Neurohormonal Pathways and the Immune System in Heart Failure: A Review of the Literature
AbstractHeart failure is a complex clinical syndrome involving a multitude of neurohormonal pathways including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, and natriuretic peptides system. It is now emerging that neurohumoral mechanisms activated during heart failure, with both preserved and reduced ejection fraction, modulate cells of the immune system. Indeed, these cells express angiotensin I receptors, adrenoceptors, and natriuretic peptides receptors. Ang II modulates macrophage polarization, promoting M2 macrophages phenotype, and this stimulation can influence lymphocytes Th1/Th2 balance. β-AR activation in monocytes is responsible for inhibition of free oxygen radicals production, and together with α2-AR can modulate TNF-α receptor expression and TNF-α release. In dendritic cells, activation of β2-AR inhibits IL-12 production, resulting in the inhibition of Th1 and promotion of Th2 differentiation. ANP induces the activation of secretion of superoxide anion in polymorphonucleated cells; reduces TNF-α and nitric oxide secretion in macrophages; and attenuates the exacerbated TH1 responses. BNP in macrophages can stimulate ROS production, up-regulates IL-10, and inhibits IL-12 and TNF-α release by dendritic cells, suggesting an anti-inflammatory cytokines profile induction. Therefore, different neurohormonal-immune cross-talks can determine the phenotype of cardiac remodeling, promoting either favorable or maladaptive responses. This review aims to summarize the available knowledge on neurohormonal modulation of immune responses, providing supportive rational background for further research. View Full-Text
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De Angelis, E.; Pecoraro, M.; Rusciano, M.R.; Ciccarelli, M.; Popolo, A. Cross-Talk between Neurohormonal Pathways and the Immune System in Heart Failure: A Review of the Literature. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1698.
De Angelis E, Pecoraro M, Rusciano MR, Ciccarelli M, Popolo A. Cross-Talk between Neurohormonal Pathways and the Immune System in Heart Failure: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(7):1698.Chicago/Turabian Style
De Angelis, Elena; Pecoraro, Michela; Rusciano, Maria R.; Ciccarelli, Michele; Popolo, Ada. 2019. "Cross-Talk between Neurohormonal Pathways and the Immune System in Heart Failure: A Review of the Literature." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 7: 1698.
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