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Open AccessArticle

Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Inhibits Efferocytosis in Human Macrophages and Alters Efferocytic Receptor Signaling

1
Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
3
Center for Integrative Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
4
Departments of Medicine and Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051167
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Protein Toxins: Enemies within or Unexpected Friends)
The Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET), composed of a Protective Antigen (PA) and the Edema Factor (EF), is a cellular adenylate cyclase that alters host responses by elevating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to supraphysiologic levels. However, the role of ET in systemic anthrax is unclear. Efferocytosis is a cAMP-sensitive, anti-inflammatory process of apoptotic cell engulfment, the inhibition of which may promote sepsis in systemic anthrax. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ET inhibits efferocytosis by primary human macrophages and evaluated the mechanisms of altered efferocytic signaling. ET, but not PA or EF alone, inhibited the efferocytosis of early apoptotic neutrophils (PMN) by primary human M2 macrophages (polarized with IL-4, IL-10, and/or dexamethasone) at concentrations relevant to those encountered in systemic infection. ET inhibited Protein S- and MFGE8-dependent efferocytosis initiated by signaling through MerTK and αVβ5 receptors, respectively. ET inhibited Rac1 activation as well as the phosphorylation of Rac1 and key activating sites of calcium calmodulin-dependent kinases CamK1α, CamK4, and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, that were induced by the exposure of M2(Dex) macrophages to Protein S-opsonized apoptotic PMN. These results show that ET impairs macrophage efferocytosis and alters efferocytic receptor signaling. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus anthracis; Edema Toxin; macrophage; efferocytosis Bacillus anthracis; Edema Toxin; macrophage; efferocytosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, Z.; Dumas, E.K.; Lawrence, C.; Pate, L.; Longobardi, S.; Wang, X.; James, J.A.; Kovats, S.; Farris, A.D. Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Inhibits Efferocytosis in Human Macrophages and Alters Efferocytic Receptor Signaling. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1167. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051167

AMA Style

Pan Z, Dumas EK, Lawrence C, Pate L, Longobardi S, Wang X, James JA, Kovats S, Farris AD. Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Inhibits Efferocytosis in Human Macrophages and Alters Efferocytic Receptor Signaling. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(5):1167. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051167

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pan, Zijian; Dumas, Eric K.; Lawrence, Christina; Pate, Lance; Longobardi, Sherri; Wang, Xiaodong; James, Judith A.; Kovats, Susan; Farris, A. D. 2019. "Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Inhibits Efferocytosis in Human Macrophages and Alters Efferocytic Receptor Signaling" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 5: 1167. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051167

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